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311-232 - Java Platform Enterprise Edition 6 Web Services Developer Certified Professional - Dump Information

Vendor : SUN
Exam Code : 311-232
Exam Name : Java Platform Enterprise Edition 6 Web Services Developer Certified Professional
Questions and Answers : 120 Q & A
Updated On : October 31, 2017
PDF Download Mirror : 311-232 Brain Dump
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311-232 Questions and Answers


QUESTION: 109

What are three best practices that can be implemented when generating WS-I Basic Profile compliant Web services? (Choose three.)

  1. Send arrays of nulls to ensure .NET and Java clients receive the same data.
  2. Define data types early in the integration cycle.
  3. Use complex data types to reduce the number of items exchanged.
  4. Test interoperability at every stage of development. E. Insert conformance headers in all SOAP messages.
F. Keep data types simple for speed and stability.

Answer: B, D, F


QUESTION: 110

A company is building a customer relationship management system that is to be deployed on a customer's network, and they want software functions to be reused and combined in different modules in the system. The Director of Technology has determined that the new system should utilize both Web services and a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Which two statements about Web services in an SOA are correct? (Choose two.)

  1. A Web service must be discovered from a UDDI registry in an SOA.
  2. SOA and Web services both use the HTTP protocol at the transport layer.
  3. A Web service must publish itself to a UDDI registry to become part of an SOA.
  4. SOA is a way to design a system and Web services are a possible implementation.
  5. SOA is used for stateless invocations, and Web services for stateful invocations.
  6. SOA emphasizes the concept of service encapsulation and Web services fulfill a service contract.

Answer: D, F


QUESTION: 111

Enterprise A invokes a Web service provided by enterprise B with some parameters, and receives a response. A developer is making this interaction asynchronous so that A does not have to wait for B to finish processing. Which two actions would be appropriate to fulfill this requirement? (Choose two.)

  1. Establish a Web service endpoint for enterprise A to receive the response.
  2. Partition the endpoint implementation in to interaction and processing layers so responses can be received independently.

  3. Convert all Web service methods to use XML documents as parameters and return values.
  4. Embed a correlation identifier in the request so that enterprise B can associate the response with it.
  5. Read messages from a queue populated by enterprise B at peak hours when response times are too slow

Answer: A, D


QUESTION: 112

Which two statements are true about the I-Stack and annotations technologies? (Choose two.)

  1. With 64-bit Java, JAXB compatible parameters are preferred for performance.
  2. @WebMethod is required for private methods, but public methods are exposed in any service automatically.
  3. Declaring business methods final is a good way to protect the integrity of the implementation class.
  4. Method parameters and return types must be compatible with the JAXB 2.0.
  5. JAX-WS uses annotations to invoke Web service requests at runtime.

Answer: D, E


QUESTION: 113

Which three statements about parsers are true? (Choose three.)

  1. SAX and StAX are bi-directional.
  2. DOM and StAX are bi-directional.
  3. StAX is a push API, whereas SAX is pull.
  4. SAX is a push API, whereas StAX is pull.
  5. SAX and StAX are read-only.
  6. SAX and DOM can write XML documents.
  7. StAX and DOM can write XML documents.

Answer: B, D, G


QUESTION: 114

Which two code fragments are valid for adding an attachment in SAAJ? (Choose two.)

  1. AttachmentPart attachment = request.createAttachementPart(); String stringContent
    = Update total;
    attachment.setContent(stringContent,text/plain); attachment.setContentID(update_total); request.addAttachmentPart(attachment);
  2. Attachment attachment = request.createAttachement();
    String stringContent = Update total; attachment.setContent(stringContent,text/plain); attachment.setContentID(update_total); request.addAttachment(attachment);
  3. URL url = new URL( eshop.com/products/tb.jpg); DataHandler datahandler = new DataHandler(url); AttachmentPart attachment = request.createAttachmentPart(dataHandler); attachment.setContentID (attached_image); request.addAttachmentPart(attachment);
  4. URL url = new URL( eshop.com/products/tb.jpg); DataHandler datahandler = new DataHandler(url); Attachment attachment = request.createAttachment(dataHandler); attachment.setContentID (attached_image); request.addAttachment(attachment);
  5. Attachment attachment = request.newAttachement();
String stringContent = Update total; attachment.setContent(stringContent,text/plain); attachment.setContentID(update_total); request.setAttachment(attachment);

Answer: A, C


QUESTION: 115

A developer must create a program to parse a medium-sized XML file looking for an instance of a specific element. Once the developer has found the element, the value must be updated and saved to disk. Which two XML parsing APIs should be used in this situation? (Choose two.)

  1. DOM
  2. StAX
  3. JAXM
  4. SAAJ

Answer: A, B


QUESTION: 116

Which two statements are true about creating a Web service with JAX-WS? (Choose two.)

  1. Stateless Web services must be created with HTTP servlet endpoints.

  2. Creating the portable artifacts by hand is slow, but makes a service easier to maintain.
  3. All Java-based endpoints share a common packaging model.
  4. EJBs can serve as endpoints if hosted in a container with runtime and service support.
  5. JAX-WS supports creating services from source and compiled code without a WSDL.

Answer: D, E


QUESTION: 117

What are two features of a WSDL 1.1 document? (Choose two.)

  1. Service defines a collection of related endpoints.
  2. Service describes the message's payload using XML.
  3. Service assigns an Internet address to a specific binding.
  4. Porttype declares complex data types and elements used elsewhere.
  5. Porttype elements are used to group a set of abstract operations.
  6. Porttype defines a concrete protocol and data format specification.

Answer: A, E


QUESTION: 118

Given that a developer implemented a web service using Stateless Session EJB:

If a web service client invokes increment web service method twice consecutively, what must be the returned value after the second invocation ? (Choose one)

  1. 0
  2. 1
  3. 2

  4. 3
  5. Undefined

Answer: E


QUESTION: 119

A student developer has created a new library of math functions to share with friends in a linear algebra class. The developer is having difficulty getting people to come over to the dorm to see the new code library, so he decides to deploy it as a Web service so that everyone can enjoy the features via the Internet. One of the functions has this WSDL definition:
<portType name="MyMathLib"><operation name="incCtr"><input message="tns:incCtr"/></operation></portType>
Which two statements are true about this Web service? (Choose two.)

  1. This is an asynchronous receive.
  2. This indicates a one-way message exchange pattern
  3. The client must use SOAPFaultException to display any errors.
  4. It must send a SOAP fault back to the sender.
  5. It must NOT send a SOAP fault back to the sender.

Answer: B, E


QUESTION: 120

An organization has business logic implemented in EJB components. Current clients use container-managed, role-based security to access the business logic using RMI. Management has determined that the business logic must be made available to non-RMI clients using a Web service. Which container-managed Web service security mechanism would the development team? use to allow Web service clients to use the current security model? (Choose one)

  1. XKMS
  2. XACML
  3. XML Digital Signature
  4. HTTP Basic Authentication
  5. annotations mapped to the JAX-WS runtime

Answer: D


SUN 311-232 Exam (Java Platform Enterprise Edition 6 Web Services Developer Certified Professional) Detailed Information

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Osmotics Age Prevention Protection Extreme SPF 45 Sunscreen 2.5 oz

Moisture enhancing mask Key Ingredients for Dry Skin:Hyalauronic Acid, Glycerin, Lanolin, Alpha Hydroxy Acids, Oil (Of Jojoba, Olive, Apricot Seed, Avocado, Grapeseed Borage, Almond, Evening Primrose), Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Honey, Shea Butter, Argan, Baobab, Manuka Honey, Green Tea (Camilla Sinsnsis), Ceramide, Glycolic Acid, Hydrolized Wheat Protein, Cocoa Butter, Shea Butter, Cucumber
Why Moisturize?Everyone can benefit from using a moisturizer after cleansing. The key is finding the appropriate moisturizer based on your skin type. Moisturizers seal moisture into the skin, so the effect is hydrating while also inhibiting evaporation. Many moisturizers contain active ingredients that deliver vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and skin supporting compounds to provide therapeutic benefits that sooth, protect and ultimately help delay the onset of early aging.Eye creams are optional, but may be desirable for those with dry or aging skin as a welcome addendum to a moisturizer. Some individuals have very delicate eye areas that are more susceptible to wrinkling, dark circles and puffiness. An eye cream can help address these specific concerns with intense moisture and a high concentration of active ingredients.
How to Choose a MoisturizerThe oilier your complexion, the lighter and more liquid your moisturizer should be. Some moisturizers even have oil free ingredients that still serve to moisturize the skin without adding oil. Conversely, dry or aging skin requires a more moisturizing-nourishing preparation. Use a moisturizer labeled with your skin type or specific skin concern. If you live in a particularly harsh climate, consider wearing a more moisturizing face cream during the winter and switch to a lighter formula during warmer months.Night creams tend to be thicker and more moisturizing than day creams. It is generally recommended to have separate moisturizers simply for the fact that you will want a day cream with a Sun Protection Factor (SPF). This will provide you with added protection from sun damage that can lead to premature aging.Based on the amount of time you spend outside on any particular day, you might want to wear a moisturizer designed for outdoor use with a significantly higher SPF. You must also factor in how easily your skin burns and take precautions to protect your skin with a sufficient SPF. As a general rule, it is recommended that your day moisturizer should have at least 15-20 SPF, and if you spend more time outdoors, consider a moisturizer with 30+ SPF.
How to Use MoisturizerAfter you wash your face and apply toner or a serum (optional), scoop out enough moisturizer to comfortably cover your face and neck area. Using your fingertips, rub it in using upward strokes, making sure to moisturize the neck, décolletage and earlobes. In order to prevent streaks, allow your moisturizer to penetrate before applying foundation.
Oily skin is identified as skin with oily areas, pronounced shininess in the T-zone, breakouts, and pores that may be clogged and enlarged. The oiliness can cause makeup to fade prematurely. Finding the right balance is key to this skincare routine.
Daily Skin Care RegimenIf you have acne or oily skin, you want to look for products that absorb oil, hydrate without added oil, and moisturize your skin without oil.
Cleanse skin both day and night with a mild sudsy or gel cleanser. Use a toner to wipe of residual dirt and soap, and finally follow with a light moisturizer with SPF for the day. Use a product that is mild and light; many times the packaging will indicate that it is non-comedegenic. Products formulated specifically for oily skin condition should be suitable for almost any use. You will want to purchase a skincare line that fits the level of your skin's needs.
Weekly Skin Care RoutineExfoliate once or twice per week. This will assist with cell turnover and will expose the healthy skin underneath. Over-exfoliating or exfoliating with harsh ingredients can irritate skin and possibly cause further breakouts, so stick with a product that has micro beads or exfoliating ingredients.
Use a weekly mask to help cleanse and tighten pores. Masks made with clay effectively absorb excess oil and are highly recommended and essential to controlling an oily complexion. Finally use a spot treatment as needed during the day or night. If skin becomes flaky or irritated, decrease the frequency of use. One final note: Choose your cosmetics and hair care products wisely. Many can be contributors of skin sensitivity or flare-ups.
Product Recommendations:
Spot treatment or all-over treatment
Key Ingredients for AcneOily Skin:Alphahydroxy Acid, Salicylic Acid, Benzoyl Peroxide, Hydroxyl Acid, Clay, Tea Tree Oil, Eucalyptus, Aloe Vera, Glycerin, Vitamin A, Retinol (a form of Vitamin A), Vitamin C, Clay
Aging skin may have any combination of wrinkles, sagging or slack skin around the jowls, chin, cheeks and jawline. It may also have evidence of sun damage (photo damagehyperpigmentation) in the form of spots or leathery texture. The skin may also feel tight and dry. If you tend to have dry skin, you will need moisturizing products that nourish, so you will want to find protective and restorative products. Achieving a moisture balance with the right pH is key.
Daily Skin Care RegimenBegin with a very mild soap, possibly cream based. Since skin can be acidic, the alkaline in soap can easily disturb the delicate pH balance. Also, make sure the soap does not contain harsh chemicals which will also remove the acid mantel and cause further dryness. Choose a toner that soothes and nourishes your skin. It should refresh with a hint of moisture - a low or no alcohol formulation is recommended to prevent over drying the skin.
A daily moisturizing routine is essential to aging skin. After washing skin, pat it dry and begin with a serum to enhance moisture, then apply a day moisturizer. Try to use a day cream with an SPF An evening ritual can include a serum application and a heavier moisturizer. Eye creams and serums are recommended for the delicate area around the eyes that are subject to fine lines and wrinkles.
Weekly Skin Care RoutineUse an extremely mild exfoliator in order to expose fresh skin and allow products to absorb. This will maximize the effectiveness of your skin care products. A moisture-enhancing mask that you put on and wipe off will moisturize and plump skin that may be dry and dehydrated.
Product Recommendations:
Moisture enhancing mask
Key Ingredients for Aging Skin:Hyalauronic acid, Manuka Honey, Evening Primrose Oil, Borage Oil, Almond Oil, Apricot Oil, Algae Extract, Caffeine, Green Tea, White Tea, Idebenone, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Grape Seed Extract, Alpha Hydroxy Acids, DMAE, Retinol, Aloe Vera, Borage Seed Oil, Ceramide, Cocoa Butter, Evening Primrose Oil, Glycolic Acid, Jojoba Oil, Lactic Acid, Shea Butter, Pycnogenol Cucumber, Copper Peptide, Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone), Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein
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On the Performance of Contention Managers for Complex Transactional Memory Benchmarks

On the Performance of Contention Managers for Complex Transactional Memory Benchmarks Mohammad Ansari ... 12.0 361 290 409 303 398 369 322 276 448 264 409 326 314 370 571 310 563 311 232 230 252 241 249 231 147 143 198 161 184 145 116 122 242 143 189 ...Article by ArticleForge

Java Enterprise Edition 6 Beta Testing

An important follow-up to the recent announcement related to our re-branding of the Sun certification program. You may have noticed that there are several Java Enterprise Edition 6 certification exams in beta that were a part of the re-brand. These exams ...Article by ArticleForge

The looming water crisis, and its causes - IRR

Sitting on the Horns of a Dilemma: Water as a Strategic Resource in South Africa
South Africa is a water-constrained country with a vital need to conserve, manage, and expand its limited water resources as efficiently as possible. Since 1994, however, strategic planning has deteriorated, along with operational efficiency. Under the supposed imperatives of ‘transformation’, skilled engineering and other professional staff have been driven out of water boards (responsible for bulk water supply) and municipalities (charged with local reticulation and often also with waste management).
Municipalities are now discharging around 4 billion litres of untreated or partially treated sewage into the country’s rivers and dams every day. The Government refuses to admit the extent to which water quality has deteriorated, and a public health crisis now looms. Various reforms are feasible, but the ruling party shows little willingness to allow practical reality to prevail over its transformation ideology.
That water constraint
South Africa’s rainfall is half the global average, making it a water-scarce country. The first proposal for the construction of large dams was made in the 1870s.
In 1886 Thomas Bain, a civil engineer in the public roads department in the Cape, followed up with a book on ‘water finding’ and‘dam-making’, which urged state intervention in the construction of hydraulic (water-driven) infrastructure as an essential foundation for economic growth and social cohesion.
When South Africa became a republic in 1961, one of the State’s first major projects was the creation of a scheme to transfer water from one river basin to another. This was achieved via the Orange-Fish-Sundays scheme, which transfers water from the Gariep Dam in the Free State to arid areas in the Eastern Cape. This initiative was specifically designed not only to address the water challenge in parts of the Karoo but also to restore investor confidence after the Sharpeville shootings in 1960.
In 1970 came the report of the Commission of Enquiry into Water Matters. This report warned that South Africa’s economic development would always be water-constrained unless a coherent plan was implemented by the State to overcome this obstacle. In response, the Government imposed a tax on the bulk sale of water (the first of its kind in the world) to fund a new body called the Water Research Commission. This commission was given the task, in partnership with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), of developing the science and engineering technology needed to address the country’s endemic water scarcity and so promote economic growth and prosperity.
Working from this foundation, South Africa became a global leader in the management of water. This allowed the country to develop the most diversified economy in the world compared with other nations with similar climatic regimes. One of its great achievements in the 1970s was the CSIR’s development of the first sewage recycling technology.
This cutting- edge innovation was put into operation in Windhoek (in what was then South West Africa and is now Namibia) in response to the absolute water scarcity in the city. This development was also part of a wider strategic initiative to harness water from a multiplicity of sources. South Africa thus became globally recognised for its ability to achieve economic growth and development despite its fundamental water constraint, which was largely overcome through high levels of technical ingenuity.
The National Water Act of 1998
After the transition to democracy in 1994, the new Government adopted the National Water Act of 1998 as one of its first ‘transformation’ interventions. This removed riparian and other common-law rights to water and made the State the public trustee of the nation’s water resources. It also gives the State the power to decide on ‘the equitable allocation of water in the public interest’, in order to address past racial and gender discrimination.
Though compensation for the loss of existing water rights is payable, the statute limits the amount which can be claimed. A key underlying purpose of the Act is to help the State redistribute farm land through its control over the water that gives the land much of its commercial value.
The new water use licences are very different from the riparian rights they replace, for they may not last more than 40 years and are in any event subject to review at five-yearly intervals. The licensing system is also complicated, and has virtually ground to a halt at various times under the burden of the thousands of water users needing to obtain the new authorisations.
Some of the many problems in the process were highlighted in August 2011, when Acting Judge James Goodey in the North Gauteng High Court in Pretoria criticised the way in which departmental officials and a new Water Tribunal – which had been established under the 1998 statute to decide disputes over the grant or refusal of the new licences – were handling their responsibilities.
Section 27(1) of the National Water Act lists 11 factors relevant to the granting or refusal of water use licences. These range from the need to promote the efficient and beneficial use of water to the extent of the investments that applicants have previously made in irrigation dams and pumps. Also on the list is the need to re-allocate water to overcome past racial and gender inequality.
Regional officials are supposed to weigh all these factors in making recommendations to the national official responsible for granting or refusing applications. This official’s decisions are subject to review by the Water Tribunal, which is appointed by the minister of water and sanitation on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission.
The relevant case was brought by Goede Wellington Boerdery (Goede Wellington), a farm on the banks of the Berg River in the Western Cape. The suit was launched after the national director had declined Goede Wellington’s application for the transfer of water-use rights, citing Section 27(1) and the need to redress past racial inequality. The Water Tribunal upheld this decision, prompting Goede Wellington to bring the matter before the Pretoria High Court.
Handing down his ruling, Judge Goodey said the tribunal had failed to apply its mind to the facts of the case. Instead, it had effectively cut and pasted one of its earlier rulings in making its decision. The court also criticised the department’s application of Section 27, which made it clear that all 11 factors had to be taken into account – and that a farmer’s race or gender could not be the sole consideration in deciding on a water use licence. The judge added that the tribunal’s decisions displayed ‘an alarming degree of ineptitude...and a lack of...rationality and common sense’. The department lodged an appeal against this ruling, but it was upheld by the Supreme Court of Appeal in 2012.
The Goede Wellington ruling became an obstacle to the racial engineering underlying the National Water Act as it provided an important basis for challenging the refusal of water use licences to commercial farmers. It also put the tribunal under pressure, while the then minister of water and environmental affairs, Edna Molewa, began calling for amendments to the National Water Act that would allow her to appoint the tribunal’s members without reference to the Judicial Service Commission. She also said that she wanted the terms of all tribunal members to come to an end, so that she could appoint a new tribunal under the amended law.
The chairman of the tribunal resigned in November 2011 (soon after the Pretoria court’s judgment had been handed down) and was not replaced, which meant the tribunal could not be properly constituted or issue any binding ruling. The tribunal thus ceased to function the following year. But in 2014 the Durban High Court (in the case of Kwazulu Bulk Logistics (CC) and others v Minister of Water and Sanitation) effectively demanded that it be re-established. The travails of the tribunal are symptomatic of a broader problem of weak capacity in water management.
Ineptitude in administering the water use licence system has cost South Africa at least one major proposed foreign investment. In the ‘honeymoon’ period following the country’s transition to democracy, South Africa became the darling of the world. A large multinational corporation, with a head office in London, wanted to make what would have been the largest foreign direct investment in the country at the time. However, the corporation then slammed into a bureaucratic cul-de-sac.
Its proposed investment in a major processing plant needed an ‘integrated water use licence’ (IWUL), but this licence could not be granted because the relevant ‘comprehensive reserve determination’ had not yet been made. (This determination is needed under the National Water Act to identify the volume of water in a given river system that is required to meet basic human needs and preserve the functional integrity of the aquatic ecosystem.)
Moreover, only a handful of trained professionals in the country had the capacity to make this reserve determination, while the proposed plant was located on a river that had not been prioritised. Hence, the necessary determination would be made only a decade into the future.
During the complex negotiations that followed, a technical team led by the CSIR was appointed to determine the reserve and the IWUL was eventually issued. By then, however, the corporation’s board of directors had become so spooked by the uncertainty inherent in the process that it declined to authorise the investment. What would have been the largest single foreign direct investment into a young democracy simply never happened.
No newspaper reported it and it became a non-event. However, to the informed few, this was the first red flag indicating that the water constraint on South Africa’s economy might not derive solely from the volume of water available. Equally significant were the institutional deficiencies and financial risks stemming from the National Water Act and its insistence on water use licences which the State could not rationally or efficiently provide.
Since those early days, the uncertainty associated with water use licences has increasingly been identified as a key commercial risk constraining the investment decisions of the private sector. In addition, little significant progress has yet been made in making the necessary reserve determinations. This has been done within a few catchment areas, but most of these assessments are still at ‘the desktop level’, which means no accurate on-site measurements have been made. This is a key obstacle to the granting of water use licences.
It also means that the lack of technical capacity within the State is hampering informed decision-making on these licences and preventing it from properly implementing the National Water Act. This has further negative ramifications in other spheres as well, for the Department of Water and Sanitation (the department) is now having to deal, for example, with the current drought in KwaZulu-Natal without the richness of the data that would normally be included in a comprehensive reserve determination.
Long delays in the granting of water use licences also have a major impact on the country’s mines, which are prohibited from starting up mining operations without a water use licence. But mining companies also stand to lose their mining rights if they do not begin mining within 12 months of these rights being granted. If the necessary water use licence is not granted in this 12-month period, a mining company then faces the unpalatable choice of either losing its mining right – and so jeopardising its investment – or starting up mining operations without the necessary water use licence.
Many mining companies have chosen the latter course, which largely explains why 53 mines were operating without water use licences in March 2012 (down from 69 in June 2011). In answer to a parliamentary question on the issue, Ms Molewa said the department had ‘embarked on a special initiative, the Letsema Project, to expedite the process of issuing water use licences, especially to mines that were operating without them’. The Letsema project had already processed 3 250 applications, she went on, leaving only some still to be finalised. This backlog has since been further reduced, but many of the water use licences granted seem to have been issued on a ‘cut-and-paste’ basis. They thus often include conditions that might be suitable in one context but are inappropriate in another. (Officials in the water department have acknowledged this problem, but seem unable to fix it.)
At the same time, the difficulty in securing water use licences remains a significant barrier to investment, particularly in the mining sector. Public companies can lose their stock exchange listings for failure to comply with their legal obligations, so any instance of non-compliance is a very serious matter for them. Many potential investors are simply unwilling to take this risk.
Municipalities also need water use licences, which often extend beyond the reticulation of waste and potable water to the provision of bulk water and the running of wastewater treatment works. Often, however, they seem unable to comply with the conditions of their water use licences, while the national water department seems equally unable to stop these contraventions. This is graphically illustrated by the example of the Rooiwal waste treatment plant in the Pretoria area (see box on page 27).
The Rooiwal story goes back to 2001, when it became clear that the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (Tshwane), one of the largest and best resourced local authorities in the country, was failing to manage the Rooiwal wastewater treatment plant in accordance with the specifications set out in its water use licence. The national department’s response was to excuse it from having to do so via an ‘exemption notice’ which relaxed these specifications.
But Tshwane still failed to comply with even these diminished responsibilities, so the national department declared a ‘state of emergency’ in October 2011, ten years after the problem had first arisen. Tshwane then tried to take remedial action, but ran into procurement difficulties and never managed to bring the plant into compliance. In 2013, with full knowledge of the situation, the national department nevertheless issued it with a new waste management licence.
Tshwane remains non-compliant to this day, while the national department has failed to intervene. Instead, the minister has reportedly issued an internal instruction to all departmental enforcement officials not to prosecute any municipality in the build-up to the 2016 municipal elections. The minister claims that enforcement by the national department against a municipality would be in breach of the constitutional requirement for ‘co-operative governance’ and the avoidance of legal proceedings as between the national, provincial, and local tiers of government.
But this view ignores other important ‘co-operative governance’ provisions, which require all organs of state to ‘provide effective....government’ and to ‘secure the well-being’ of the population. Instead, the national department’s apparent indifference to municipal water treatment failures is a major factor in the huge volume of untreated (or partially treated) sewage effluent that is being returned to rivers and dams in Pretoria and elsewhere (see The extent of eutrophication,below).
Projecting future water needs
After 1994 the new Government made a critical decision with far-reaching consequences. As earlier noted, the 1970 report of the Commission of Enquiry into Water Matterscreated a highly successful strategic framework for the management of South Africa’s limited water resources. This in turn paved the way for consistent economic growth, despite apartheid’s economic distortions and the financial sanctions implemented in the 1980s.
However, the commission’s report also warned of ‘serious shortages...somewhere before the close of the century’ unless ‘essential steps were taken to plan the exploitation and augmentation of our water resources, to conserve and re-use our available supplies, and to manage and control our resources in the most efficient manner’.
Instead of heeding this important message, the ruling African National Congress (ANC) seemed to regard the commission’s report – with all its hard-earned factual wisdom – as an apartheid instrument which should simply be jettisoned. The unintended consequence is that all the institutionalised knowledge and learning accumulated over three decades (from 1961 to 1994) have been lost. Worse still, the 1970 report has not been replaced by a viable alternative strategy – and this despite the requirement in the National Water Act for fresh strategic plans to be drawn up every five years.
The National Water Act calls for a ‘national water resource strategy’ to be adopted every five years. The objective of this strategy is to provide a comprehensive inventory of total national water resources and compare these with localised demand in the various Water Management Areas established under the statute.
The national strategy is thus supposed to provide an overall blueprint for the management of water across the country. It is also supposed to provide the factual data against which the Government’s aspirations for faster economic development can be set against the harsh reality of South Africa’s water constraints.
Only two national strategy documents have been completed since the National Water Act was adopted in 1998. The first, drawn up in 2004, is very much a technical document. The second, drawn up in 2012, is a predominantly political document with a strong ideological dimension. It thus contrasts, for example, ‘the false sense of water security within the privileged sectors of South African society’ with the ‘high levels of water insecurity the poor and marginalised...have always experienced’. This politicises water resource management, while overlooking the relevant biophysical facts and the difficulties in ensuring adequate water supply in a water-stressed country.
The second document was controversial from the start, because the consultants hired to do the work allegedly absconded with the cash and failed to deliver the final product. This led to a hasty internal cover-up by a handful of technically competent employees of the then Department of Water Affairs, in which the data from the first (2004) document was rehashed but not fundamentally reworked.
The 2012 document is often also inconsistent and seems more aspirational than practical. For example, it seeks a greater emphasis on ‘equity’ and wants water to be ‘placed at the centre of integrated development planning’, but it overlooks the shortage of water of an acceptable quality. It wants more South Africans to have an increased water supply, but it also emphasises the need for ‘water conservation’ and ‘demand management’. It speaks of developing alternative water sources via recycling, desalination, and ground water use (technologies that are consistent with global best practice), but it ignores the deteriorating quality of the water currently stored in the country’s dams. It calls for increased protection for aquatic ecosystems, but overlooks increasing contamination from failing wastewater treatment plants, such as the Rooiwal one in Tshwane.
The most important national strategy document remains the 2004 one, which is based on data collected in 1998. This document examines the likely balance between water demand and available supply over a 20-year period (from 2005 to 2025), in each of the 19 Water Management Areas established under the National Water Act. It also uses two scenarios: a base scenario, in which both population growth and economic growth are limited; and a high scenarioin which population growth remains constrained but the economic growth rate is significantly higher.
Central to both scenarios is an assumption that population growth will be moderate, given the impact of HIVAIDS (then difficult to assess) and projected urbanisation rates. The base scenario projects a total population of 50 million by 2025, of which 32 million will be urbanised. The high scenario projects a total population of some 55 million by 2025, with 35 million people then living in urban areas.
As regards economic growth, the base scenario projects a real average annual growth rate of 1.5% of gross domestic product (GDP) over the 20-year period. As a rule of thumb, a 1.5% increase in GDP is seen as resulting in a 2% deficit in water allocation. The high scenario is based on real annual average growth of 4% of GDP from 2005 until 2025.
Both scenarios assume that ‘return flows’ from urban areas will play an important part in meeting water needs. ‘Return flows’ refer to water that has been used in agriculture, industry or domestic settings and is now contaminated in some way, but which becomes available as a water resource once again after being discharged as treated effluent (or after seeping back into rivers from farm land, for example). The strategy document takes it for granted that these flows will be of a useable quality – an expectation which assumes that wastewater treatment plants will remain functional and that treatment standards will be rigidly enforced.
Based on data gathered in 1998, both scenarios identify the water ‘potentially available’ for development as some 5 410 million cubic metres in the year 2025. This term refers to water that is currently under-utilised but could be developed if needed. Under the base scenario, projected water demand is more limited and so the expected national shortfall or water deficit in that year is relatively small at 234 million cubic metres. However, under the high scenario, projected water demand is significantly greater, putting the expected national water deficit in 2025 at 2 044 million cubic metres. In both scenarios, the water potentially available for development remains at 5 410 million cubic metres, which is more than enough to meet these projected shortages.
The datasets for both scenarios are shown as Tables 1and 2. Table 1shows the base scenario and Table 2the high scenario. The data in these tables does not cross-compute, because each column is a summary of a complex set of calculations. All volumes are given in millions of cubic metres per year (106m3yr1).
Table 1
Reconciliation of the Requirements for, and Availability of, Water for the Year 2025 in terms of the Base Scenario (economic growth at 1.5% of GDP). All volumes given in millions of cubic metres per year (106m3yr1), while WMA means Water Management Area.
( Adapted from the National Water Resource Strategy, 2004:41).

 
WMA

Reliable Yield

Transfers In

Local Req’ts

Transfers Out

(Shortfall) Surplus (+)

Potential for Dev’t

Limpopo

281

18

347

0

(48)

8

Levuvhu Letaba

404

0

349

13

42

102

Crocodile West & Marico

846

727

1,438

10

125

0

Olifants

630

210

1,075

7

(242)

239

omati

1,028

0

914

311

(197)

104

Usutu to Mhlatuze

1,113

40

728

114

311

110

Thukela

742

0

347

506

(111)

598

Upper Vaal

1,229

1,630

1,269

1,632

(42)

50

Middle Vaal

55

838

381

503

9

0

Lower Vaal

127

571

641

0

57

0

Mvoti to Umzimkulu

555

34

1,012

0

(423)

1,018

Mzimvubu to Keiskamma

872

0

413

0

459

1,500

Upper Orange

4,734

2

1,059

3,589

88

900

Lower Orange

(956)

2,082

1,079

54

(7)

150

Fish to Tsitsikamma

456

603

988

0

71

85

Gouritz

278

0

353

1

(76)

110

Olifants Doring

335

3

370

0

(32)

185

Breede

869

1

638

196

36

124

Berg

568

194

829

0

(67)

127

Total for Country

14,166

0

14,230

170

(234)

5,410

Table 2 shows the high scenario, which is the worst case projected by the 2004 document in terms of water availability.
Table 2
Reconciliation of the Requirements for, and Availability of, Water for the Year 2025 in terms of the High Scenario (economic growth at 4%). All volumes given in millions of cubic metres per year (106m3yr1). WMA means Water Management Area.
( Adapted from the National Water Resource Strategy, 2004:42).

WMA

Reliable Yield

Transfers In

Local Req’ts

Transfers Out

(Shortfall) Surplus (+)

Potential for Dev’t

Limpopo

295

23

379

0

(61)

8

Levuvhu Letaba

405

0

351

13

41

102

Crocodile West & Marico

1,084

1,159

1,898

10

335

0

Olifants

665

210

1,143

13

(281)

239

omati

1,036

0

957

311

(232)

104

Usutu to Mhlatuze

1,124

40

812

114

238

110

Thukela

776

0

420

506

(150)

598

Upper Vaal

1,486

1,630

1,742

2,138

(764)

50

Middle Vaal

67

911

415

557

6

0

Lower Vaal

127

646

703

0

70

0

Mvoti to Umzimkulu

614

34

1,436

0

(788)

1,018

Mzimvubu to Keiskamma

886

0

449

0

437

1,500

Upper Orange

4,755

2

1,122

3,678

(43)

900

Lower Orange

(956)

2,100

1,102

54

(12)

150

Fish to Tsitsikamma

452

653

1,053

0

52

85

Gouritz

288

0

444

1

(157)

110

Olifants Doring

337

3

380

0

(40)

185

Breede

897

1

704

196

(2)

124

Berg

602

194

1,304

0

(508)

127

Total for Country

14,940

0

16,814

170

(2,044)

5,410

One of the problems with both scenarios is that water demand is already higher than either envisages. This is partly because the population has already grown to 55 million, the figure the high scenario sees as being reached in 2025. In addition, the department has done more than was anticipated in rolling out piped water. The number of households with access to piped water has thus gone up from some 9 300 in 2005 to more than 13 200 now, an increase of 42%. This has helped improve the living conditions of millions of South Africans, but has also put severe pressure on limited water resources. Another weakness is that strict standards for waste water treatment have not in fact been upheld, as both scenarios assumed would be the case. Instead, the quality of return flows has sharply deteriorated, so limiting the quantity of suitable water available.
Also relevant is the fact that some Water Management Areas have higher water needs than others, mainly as a result of greater population pressures and more concentrated economic activity. Taking population and economic factors into account, four Water Management Areas stand out. These are:
- the Crocodile West & Marico area, centred on the Hartebeestpoort Dam north of Pretoria, which relies significantly on the return flow of treated sewage from Johannesburg and Pretoria;
- the Upper Vaal area, which contains the industrial heartland of the country;
- the eastern coastal area, which extends from northern KwaZulu-Natal down to the Eastern Cape; and
- the Berg River area that sustains Cape Town and Stellenbosch.
Key data from these four Water Management Areas is contained in Table 3. This information shows the trophic status, or the biological productive capacity, of the water in each area. This trophic status depends on the presence in the water of nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates, which come from untreated (or partially treated) sewage, as well as agricultural return flows from major irrigation areas. Water with an enriched biological productive capacity is said to be eutrophic, while highly enriched systems are classified as hypertrophic. Eutrophic water is unsafe for various reasons (as further explained below), while hypertrophic water is even more so.
Table 3 also shows the projected water balance in these four key areas, using the high scenario set out in Table 2, which is the more realistic one. It further includes brief comments on the major water challenges each area faces and the extent to which desalination or the use of ‘grey’ water could help to boost its water supply.
Desalination has become a viable option since the successful commissioning of the Trekkopje Desalination Plant in Namibia in April 2010. A number of additional desalination plants are now being planned in Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, and elsewhere. The main constraints on this technology are the long-term disposal of highly concentrated brine and the need for sufficient electricity, which means that Eskom’s uncertain capacity has to be factored in as well.
Grey water can be recovered from sewage plants, but only if these are upgraded and then properly operated. All the country’s sewage plants together could yield around 5 billion litres of safe water per day if the systems were functioning as designed. This water could even be treated to potable standards if next-generation technology were to be installed. The first essential step is thus to manage them properly, in keeping with their current technical capacity, and they will return 5 billion litres per day of safe water back into rivers. The second is to upgrade them with new technology, and they will then generate 5 billion litres a day of drinking-quality water.
Two of these key areas – the Upper Vaal and Crocodile West & Marico – are inland areas, where desalination is not readily available because of the brine disposal constraints. However, these areas are highly suited for grey water recovery options, particularly the Crocodile system, which already survives on sewage return flows out of Gauteng. The other two – Mvoti to Umzimkulu and the Berg area – are coastal, which makes them ideally suited for both desalination and grey water recovery operations.
Table 3
Summary of the four most critical Water Management Areas (WMAs)

WMA

Trophic Status

Water Balance 2025
(Table 2)

Comments

Upper Vaal

High

(764)

Highly stressed, with coal mining as a key issue and grey water recovery as an option

Mvoti to Umzimkulu

High

(788)

Worst drought in 33 years, with desalination and grey water recovery as options

Crocodile West & Marico

High

+ 355

Mostly sewage return flows from Gauteng, with grey water recovery options

Berg

High

(508)

Highly stressed, with desalination and grey water recovery as options

The extent of eutrophication
A recent survey by AfriForum, using data obtained under the Promotion of Access to Information Act (IA) of 2000, reveals a startling set of facts. Wastewater service delivery is provided by 152 Water Service ities via an infrastructure network comprising 824 collector and treatment systems.
Collectively, according to the Green Dropreports compiled by the department to monitor the effectiveness of wastewater treatment, these 824 plants receive 4 901 million litres per day (Mld) of sewage flows. What AfriForum’s analysis now shows is that, of this total daily flow, only 1 259 Mld (26%) is treated to satisfactory standards before being discharged back into rivers. The remainder – a staggering 3 642 Mld – is returned to the country’s rivers as partially treated or untreated sewage. This makes the State the single largest polluter of water in the country.
The department denies this, claiming that its 2013 Green Dropreport on the quality of wastewater management in the country shows significant improvement. In particular, it says, whereas the national score for managing waste water was 71% in 2011, this has risen to 74% in 2013. Comments AfriForum: ‘This sounds very impressive until a note is read that the National Green Dropscore applies weight per system, which means that a massive works like the Johannesburg Northern Works, with a capacity of 450 Mlday and performing very well, can “pull up” many smaller works with capacities of 5 to 10 Mlday.’ In addition, by the department’s own admission, 248 wastewater systems received scores of below 30%, thereby marking them as ‘systems in crisis’.
Poor waste water treatment is now driving the eutrophication of all major dams. As earlier noted, eutrophic water is characterised by the presence of high levels of nutrients, including phosphates and nitrates. These are likely, among other things, to promote the growth of a dangerous form of blue-green algae (see below). Eutrophication is thus a serious problem, while the Government seems to be under-reporting its extent.
Official reports on eutrophication indicate that only 5% of the national water resource is at risk, but this severely understates the magnitude of the phenomenon. This could be the result of flawed methods of measuring phosphate levels, in particular. However, the level and consistency of the under-reporting suggests a deliberate attempt to mislead the public and shield the Government from political embarrassment.
A recent study by Rand Water (the water board responsible for bulk water supply in Gauteng and elsewhere), also fudges the issue of eutrophication. It nevertheless highlights a number of factors pointing towards this problem in the Vaal Dam, one of South Africa’s most important water sources. This study collected data from 22 monitoring points in the Vaal Dam system in the period from July 2014 to June 2015. Of these 22 monitoring points:
- seven show high levels of ammonia, a complex form of nitrogen and hydrogen which is a by-product of decay and a key element in eutrophication. Ammonia is toxic to most aquatic life forms and can create major fish kills;
- more than 20 show high levels of nitrate, which is produced by nitrifying bacteria and return flows of agricultural fertiliser. It is the ratio of nitrate to phosphate that triggers vast blooms of toxic blue-green algae;
- seven show elevated levels of phosphate, but this number would probably be higher if phosphate was more accurately monitored and measured;
- at least 13 show unacceptable levels of chemical oxygen demand, which is indicative of inadequately treated sewage return flows and the presence of other decaying organic matter;
- around 7 show elevated levels of conductivity (the capacity of an electrical charge to pass through water), which points to a high concentration of dissolved salts and ions; and
- 12 show the presence of the bacterium Escherichia coli or e-Coli. This bacterium is found in the gut of warm-blooded mammals (including humans), and its presence is a direct pointer to contamination by sewage return flows.
According to a recent study by the CSIR, about two thirds of the country’s 50 largest dams are now eutrophic.
Other studies put the percentage even higher, at more than three quarters.
At the same time, neither the department, nor many of the other state entities responsible for water provision, have the capacity to manage the problems arising from eutrophication.
Wrote respected limnologist William R Harding in March 2015 in Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa(a recognised scientific journal used by the aquatic sciences community): ‘With as much as 76% of the impounded water affected by eutrophication, [South Africa] is ill-equipped to understand and manage the burgeoning crisis. There is a near-total lack of the structures, skills, and planning needed to address the water quality issues that will, in effect, reduce the availability of those water resources stored in reservoir lakes.’ (Dr Harding has effectively been silenced by the State because his work on eutrophication was considered too damaging. This was after his peer-reviewed analysis showed that the millions of rands being spent on the supposed ‘rehabilitation’ of the Hartbeespoort Dam have no scientific merit and amount to an Nkandla-scale misappropriation of state resources.)
Eutrophication is one of the core challenges the country now faces, for it means that the water potentially available for development (on both the base and high scenarios earlier described) does not in fact exist. It is impossible to calculate exactly how much of the water thought to be available for development has been lost through the presence of untreated (or partially treated) sewage.
However, just as a small volume of oil destroys the quality of a large volume of water, so a small source of persistent sewage has essentially the same effect. In the current situation in South Africa, the roughly 4 billion litres of sewage being discharged every day are destroying a far greater volume of potentially useable water. It is impossible to say precisely how great the damage is, as the exact ratio of unit of sewage to unit of water destroyed has never been authoritatively calculated.
Relevant too is the fact that the discharge of inadequately treated sewage effluent from even a single wastewater treatment plant overloads the bulk water treatment plant which is supposed to produce potable water for immediate downstream users. This is a problem particularly affecting the Olifants River in Mpumalanga, in its passage from eMalahleni (Witbank) to the Kruger National Park. There are six water supply loops in the area, all of which source drinking water from a river that is heavily contaminated by sewage. Effectively, this means that the water flowing in the Olifants River passes through at least six people (or six sets of alimentary canals and kidneys) before it reaches Mozambique. Much the same can be said of all the major river basins in South Africa. In addition, there are very few potable water treatment works in the country which are able to source their bulk water from rivers uncontaminated by sewage.
The general public remains largely ignorant of the fact that almost all potable water in South Africa is sourced downstream of dysfunctional sewage plants and is treated by a bulk water plant that is not designed for this purpose. Simply stated, South Africa has polluted its national water resource to such an extent that it now faces a crisis of inducedscarcity, which could have been avoided.
The microcystin danger
One of the dangers in eutrophication is that it promotes the growth of a family of primitive organisms that are commonly described as ‘blue-green algae’ but technically are known as cyanobacteria. These primordial life forms are neither plant nor animal, but display some of the characteristics of both. As plants, they photo synthesise and are thus reliant on the sun. As animals, they are capable of seemingly intelligent movement. This means that they congregate in vast numbers where conditions are ideal.
One of the most common species of cyanobacteria is Microcystis aeruginosa. This species of cyanobacteria produces a potent toxin known as microcystin. This has hepatoxic (liver-damaging) properties, along with carcinogenic (cancer-producing) ones and neutrotoxic ones (which impair the central nervous system). While it is unclear what benefits the Microcystisorganism derives from this toxin, it is known to be chemically similar to cobra venom.
This analysis of the microcystin toxin is one of the findings that emerged in 2005 from a major study of the Hartbeespoort Dam near Pretoria. This study also measured the microcystin toxin levels in the water for the period from August 2003 to May 2004. It revealed microcystin levels at a median concentration of 580 microgramsperlitre(µgl) within the dam. The highest concentration found was 14 400 µgl, while minimum concentrations persistently exceeded 10 µgl.
Another study found microcystin levels in South Africa that ranged from 10 000 µgl at the lowest to a spike of 18 000 µgl in some areas. This study canvassed a representative sample of the most eutrophic dams in the country, including but not limited to the Hartbeespoort Dam, the Midmar and Hazelmere Dams in KwaZulu-Natal, and the Vaal Dam. These microcystin levels are amongst the highest ever measured in the world. Microcystin toxin levels become a concern in developed countries at three orders of magnitude below the levels commonly found in South Africa.
Still more worrying is the fact that none of South Africa’s 1 085 water supply systems have the capacity to remove microcystin. There are only two known technologies capable of neutralising microcystin (advanced oxidisation processes and activated carbon), but these are not in mainstream use in any of the bulk potable water treatment plants in the country. In addition, no one knows whether these technologies are in fact capable of neutralising microcystin at the concentrations found in South Africa. In this regard, we are truly flying blind. This may also be encouraging the Government to deny the full extent of the problem, rather than developing a rigorous monitoring program that would unveil it.
Other unacknowledged problems
The agricultural sector, the single largest water user, uses some 60% of South Africa’s water, mainly for irrigation (see Figure 4). The Department of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries wants to increase the quantity of irrigated land by more than 50%, but assumes that this can be achieved without increasing the amount of water allocated to farming. The increase in irrigated land is supposed to be achieved through greater efficiencies in water use (through an increased use of drip irrigation, for instance), coupled with some additional water supply developments, including the new Umzimvubu Dam being planned for the Eastern Cape. However, construction of this dam has not yet begun and it is unlikely to be completed by 2018, as currently scheduled.
Figure 4.
Sectoral water use in terms of the national water resource strategy drawn up in 2012.
The idea that the quantity of irrigated land can be doubled without increasing the water made available for agriculture is supremely ambitious. It is also not grounded in any empirical reality, especially as efficiencies are diminishing rather than increasing. This has been the case since 1994 and is largely the result of infrastructural and institutional failings.
In addition, irrigation systems are typically old and often in a state of disrepair, which means they generally lose water long before it even reaches farms. Many irrigation farmers are also effectively barred from carrying out their own improvements because their land is under claim and cannot easily be used as collateral for bank loans. The capacity of all government entities has also been undermined by transformation, so the Government’s determination to accelerate this process is likely to make things worse rather than better.
As Figure 4 also shows, municipalities are the second largest water users, using 27% of the national water resource. Here, many more inefficiencies are evident, for average water consumption in South Africa is 235 litres per person per day (lpd), which is a staggering 26% higher than the global average of 173 lpd.
A key part of the problem is that 37% of the water supplied by municipalities is ‘non-revenue’ water, which is either lost to leakages or is never billed or paid for. In some of the worse performing municipalities, distribution losses are estimated to be close on 50%. These losses cost municipalities around R11bn a year, but cannot easily be overcome with existing state capacity.
What this also means is that the usual benefits of urbanisation in water management – benefits stemming from the greater density of consumers in cities – are being lost through increasing inefficiency in the reticulation system. Some glimmers of hope can be found in municipalities such as Drakenstein (near Paarl in the Western Cape), which has succeeded in reducing non-revenue water from 33% in 1999 to 12% in July 2013, while also limiting both water consumption and waste. However, these are patchy results, with the general trend being towards a deterioration in municipal reticulation.
Institutional capacity is a fundamental constraint at all levels of the water management system. For example, while the 2004 national strategy document identifies 19 Water Management Areas (WMAs), each of which is supposed to have its own ‘catchment management agency’ (CMA), only two of these CMAs have been brought into operation. (These are the Inkomati CMA in Mpumalanga and the Breede-Overberg CMA in the Western Cape.)
The 2012 national strategy document is more realistic in proposing that the 19 WMAs be consolidated into nine new structures, which is a step in the right direction. However, it remains unclear how this will improve the management of water when the fundamental need to gather accurate and regular hydrological and other biophysical data remains subordinated to the political imperatives of transformation.
The WMAs also require sophisticated data on which to base their planning and operational decision-making. Since 2004, however, little water planning information has been gathered. In addition, no updated water account – a record of water use, allocation, and supply at a specified moment in time (similar to a financial balance sheet) – has been made available since 2000. There has also been a dramatic decline in the generation of useful hydrological data, so much so that current hydrological monitoring is at the same level as the country had achieved in the 1950s.
Hydrometric (rainfall) monitoring by the South African Weather Service is also much diminished. Only two out of 13 monitoring stations in the Mvoti River basin in KwaZulu-Natal have been yielding regular data, which helps explain why the current major drought in the province remained invisible to decision-makers until the Mvoti Water Treatment Plant suddenly ran out of water. This triggered a panicked response by managers at the plant, who then tried to shift the blame to other factors rather than admit to the current deficiencies in data capture and processing.
Reasons for the deterioration in data management are many and varied. One is the transformation imperative, which has helped to push experienced professionals out of government departments and into commercial consulting firms. These individuals have been replaced by people with fewer skills and less experience, so creating a vacuum in professional expertise. This has also rendered state agencies heavily dependent on consultants for the delivery of critical services, including data collection and analysis.
Commercial consultants quickly learned that data equates to money, and began recycling much of the same data every time a new consulting report needed to be produced. This has resulted in multiple billings for the same data, but has had to be accepted as a necessary evil as the State’s own capacity has declined. This reduced ability to manage data is also unlikely to be reversed, despite some recent positive developments. (These include the creation of the Gauteng City Regional Observatory, which is intended to become a central depository for all spatial data on Gauteng and Johannesburg.)
Particularly worrying is the persistence of poor wastewater management, most notably at municipal and provincial levels. The reasons for this are complex. However, despite 20 years of governing and many promises of reform, the ruling ANC is still battling to improve the competence of its deployed cadres. Ironically, there also seems to be an inverse relationship between the functionality of state entities and their proximity to the individual. Municipalities are responsible for delivering the water, electricity, and other services that have the most immediate impact on the daily lives of individuals. But it is precisely at this local level that state capacity is most limited.
Decision-makers within the ruling party are acutely aware of this problem, as is the national Government. In addition, a comprehensive survey by the South African Institute of Civil Engineers (SAICE) in 2008 highlighted a shortage of engineering skills at local level which has yet to be overcome (and will surely not be solved by the recent appointment of 35 Cuban engineers to municipalities around the country).
The shortage of engineering skills at third-tier level is also an ‘induced’ deficit directly related to the ANC’s insistence on racial transformation. Were it not for this factor, the engineering skills available would suffice to meet present needs. Hence, if the Government were willing to deracialise the appointment of technical skills, the current shortage would be overcome. It is an induced shortage, much like the induced scarcity arising from sewage work dysfunction.
However, for as long as current transformation policies persist, municipalities will battle to fulfil their responsibilities to treat wastewater properly. A key pointer to this malaise is the ongoing inability of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality to overcome the ‘state of emergency’ at the Rooiwal wastewater plant.
That this crisis situation has persisted since 2011 – for close on 15 years – points to systemic failures so deep-rooted they cannot easily be resolved. This particular example should be closely monitored as it could be the equivalent of the ‘canary in the coal mine’. If the situation at Rooiwal worsens, this could thus provide empirical evidence of wider impending institutional collapse. Conversely, if the deficiencies at the plant can be overcome, this could be an equally significant pointer in the opposite direction.
In the interim, transformation policies are now also having major impact on the water boards which obtain bulk water from dams, pass it through potable water treatment plants, and then supply it to municipalities for onward distribution to end-users. Engineers sitting on the boards of directors of these vital organisations are now also being replaced by the ANC’s deployed cadres. The result is that Rand Water, one of the largest water boards in the world, currently has a board of directors on which no single professional engineer serves.
The ruling party’s emphasis on transformation has affected staff as well and has resulted in highly qualified specialists (ranging from engineers to microbiologists and ecologists) being placed under great pressure to leave, long before they reach retirement age. Many have succumbed to the pressure and resigned, while their replacements have rarely had the same qualifications and experience.
Solutions to the growing water crisis
The first essential requirement is a new and technically robust national strategic plan for managing, conserving, and augmenting the country’s limited water supplies. This strategic plan needs to draw on all the information and insights contained in the 1970 report of the Commission of Enquiry into Water Matters. The new plan must put its emphasis on improving water quality, enhancing professional and technical skills, developing innovative water recovery technologies, overcoming the problem of non-revenue water, and laying out a suitable framework for public-private partnerships in water provision.
Implementation of the strategic plan should be driven by the Presidency, and must have clear goals for the efficient recycling of water. Our national water resource, as collected in dams, currently stands at some 38 billion cubic metres, provided that this water is not lost to eutrophication. The country’s projected demand in 2030 is some 60 billion cubic metres. If we could use our existing 38 billion cubic metres roughly 1.6 times over, this would generate the 60 billion cubic metres required (38 x 1.6 = 60.8). If every water authority were to achieve this goal over the next 15 years, the cumulative impact would be a national recycling strategy that would meet the overall need and provide an essential foundation for increased growth and employment.
However, if this overarching goal is to be attained, the next urgent need is to reinvigorate all the institutions involved in water management and supply. These extend from the national department itself, with its overall responsibility for water policy and its implementation, through the water boards responsible for bulk water provision, to the municipalities responsible for the reticulation of potable and waste water and often also for the management of wastewater treatment plants. Also relevant here are the various institutions established under the National Water Act, which include the Water Tribunal responsible for deciding on applications for water use licences and the CMAs responsible for managing the various WMAs.
Appointments and promotions to all engineering, technical, and managerial posts within these institutions must in future be based primarily on professional knowledge and experience. Current targets for employment equity in such positions should also be revised down because they overlook the age and skills profile of the black African population. Though black Africans make up 75% of the economically active population, this group includes all those people between the ages of 15 and 64 who either work or wish to do so.
The black African population is also a particularly youthful one: so much so that more than 52% of black Africans are currently under the age of 25. In addition, many management and professional posts require either a relevant degree or at least some form of tertiary training, whereas only some 5% of black Africans currently have any post-Grade 12 education. Among professional engineers, moreover, only 1 500 are black Africans, while roughly 1 000 are Indian, 160 are ‘coloured’, and 13 800 are white.
The economically active population thus includes many black Africans who are too young, unskilled, and in experienced to be eligible for managerial, engineering, and professional posts.
Targets for black African representation at these positions should therefore be reduced to realistic levels which take these factors into account. At the same time, the quality of schooling needs urgently to be improved, while every effort should be made to attract black African graduates with suitable qualifications into water institutions. Here, these individuals should be trained, mentored, and helped to rise as rapidly as possible into more senior posts. White African professionals should be recognised for what they are – citizens who wish to contribute to South Africa’s success and have the core technical skills required.
With more realistic employment equity targets in place, it should be easier to retain the skills, experience, and institutional memory still to be found in water institutions. This nucleus of skills should be used to build up additional professional and managerial capacity over time. The country must shift away from cadre deployment and an emphasis on unrealistic racial targets to the development of a cohort of experienced professionals who are rigorously measured on their performance and can be fired if they fail to deliver to the required standard.
A key task for these revitalised institutions will be to reinvigorate the country’s hydrometric (rainfall) and hydrological (streamflow) data stations, most of which are in a serious state of disrepair. Comprehensive and accurate data must again be assembled, so as to provide early warning of drought, for example, and ensure that eutrophication levels are properly monitored, analysed, and mitigated. Current inadequate measurements of phosphate levels, for example – which seem to be allowing the Government to under-state the eutrophication problem by a factor of some 90% – must urgently be resolved.
The most vital challenge of all is to find a speedy way to fix the poorly managed wastewater treatment plants which presently spew some 3 642 Mld of untreated or partially treated sewage into the country’s rivers and dams every day.
This requires, in the first instance, that people with the requisite skills and experience be appointed to run these plants. However, procurement difficulties also play a part in their current poor performance, as the Rooiwal plant in the Tshwane area shows. There, attempts by the plant’s managers to end the state of emergency declared by the national department were stymied, in part at least, by procurement problems (see box on page 27).
Bad financial management also often undermines procurement, as budgeted revenue is frequently frittered away in unauthorised, irregular, and wasteful expenditure. Procurement is further complicated by black economic empowerment (BEE) requirements, which generally add to tender costs, overlook the shortage of black-empowered firms with the necessary capacities, and can give impetus to corruption.
Overall, the supposed needs of ‘transformation’ must no longer be allowed to trump the imperative to safeguard public health. The relatively small elite which benefits from current employment equity and BEE policies is likely to object vociferously, but their narrow self-interest cannot continue to be put before the needs of the country as a whole. If current transformation policies continue to take precedence, we can anticipate a further deterioration in the operation of wastewater treatment plants. This in turn is likely to generate a growing burden of disease, especially in poor communities, and an escalating cost for the treatment of potable water from sources contaminated by sewage flows.
The possibility of major public health crises in the short to medium term is growing and can no longer be discounted. We could soon see a major bloom of toxic cyanobacteria, especially in the light of the increased water temperatures likely to result from the El Nino Southern Oscillation now evident in southern Africa. The growing risk to both companies and individuals needs to be anticipated and understood, so that remedial action can be taken as quickly and effectively as possible.
We must also embark on a broad awareness campaign to inform the public about the extent of eutrophication and the problem of microcystin toxicity. The public needs to be aware of the risks, while policy reforms need to be accelerated through informed debate. The initial emphasis will have to be on ensuring that adequate ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions are found and implemented as quickly as possible. We must also ensure that all bulk potable water treatment plants start applying the only two known technologies capable of neutralising mycrocystin. These are the only responses likely to be viable in the short-term. We must further urgently re-invest in the elimination of eutrophication, but this will yield positive results only in the long term.
South Africa also needs to find realistic ways of increasing its water supply. The Lesotho Highlands Water Project is often touted as an important way of doing so, but cannot in fact achieve this as all water from Lesotho flows into South Africa already. What the project does is to divert the flow and retain it in high mountains where deep storage is possible and evaporation losses are lower.
At the same time, however, the yield from the project is increasingly being ‘stolen’ by farmers long before any water reaches the Vaal Dam. This is a perverse consequence of the department’s water use licensing system, which is reducing the water available to commercial farmers (without yielding compensatory benefits to emergent farmers, who generally lack the skills, experience, infrastructure, and capital to succeed in their small farming ventures).
Many commercial farmers have responded to this situation by simply abstracting the water that they need. The department is now using satellite data to verify these abstractions and prosecutions are said to be imminent. However, even if current unauthorised abstractions can be stopped, the deeper problem of providing an adequate water supply to the commercial farming sector – which is vital to the country’s food security – will not easily be resolved.
The department speaks also of building bigger dams to capture more of the water in the Vaal, Gariep, and other major rivers. However, this is not a viable option. The Gariep River, for one, already has a total dam storage capacity amounting to 271% of the available stream flow. In other words, if the annual average flow of water in the river is assumed to equal 100%, then its total dam storage capacity already stands at 271% – or almost three times the water available. Hence, there is little point in building new dams on this river, or on many others. In addition, even if new dams could be built, rising temperatures could increase losses to evaporation, heighten salinity levels, and accelerate the rate of eutrophication, especially if current nutrient loads persist.
An alternative method of storing water is thus urgently required. Here, the best option could be new methods of aquifer storage and recovery – also known as managed aquifer recharge – that are currently being developed in countries such as Australia, the United States, and Namibia. This technology has important potential, but various constraints on its use – including the importance of appropriate geological conditions – still need to be better understood.
Financial issues also need to be resolved. The tax revenues allocated to water management need to be increased, and must also be much more efficiently used. Official estimates by the department indicate that more than R800bn– or R80bnayear– is needed over the next decade simply to overcome the maintenance backlog in water infrastructure. But annual budgetary allocations are generally below this sum, while many municipalities and other state entities either under-spend their budgets or fritter much of the money away. The State also loses an estimated R30bn to corruption each year, which must affect the water sector too.
Overall, the country is not spending enough – or getting enough ‘bang for its buck’ – even on essential maintenance, let alone the new technologies needed to manage microcystin, develop aquifer storage and recovery, or remove the endocrine disrupting chemicals (oestrogen, for one) that current sewage treatment methods cannot counter.
The problem of ‘non-revenue’ water must also be overcome if South Africa is to reduce its massive water wastage. Significant quantities of water are lost through leaking pipes and other infrastructure, which poorly skilled municipalities generally lack the capacity to address. But much of the water supplied is not metered at all, while end-users often also fail to pay the water charges levied by local authorities.
Reasons for non-payment include the ‘rent boycott’ (a refusal to pay electricity and water charges as a political protest against apartheid), which was encouraged by the ANC in the ‘struggle’ years and which persists to this day. Also relevant here are the inaccuracies in billing systems in many municipalities, an ideological belief that access to water is a basic human right for which poor people should not have to pay, and a deepening crisis of unemployment which has significantly eroded household incomes.
Raising water tariffs is sometimes seen as a way of encouraging more prudent water use. However, global experience shows that this is unlikely to make much difference, as usage generally goes up again after the short-term shock of a tariff increase has been felt. In addition, higher water tariffs would not address the key financial challenges confronting South Africa’s water sector. These problems cannot be resolved without better financial and technical skills, less corruption and wasteful spending, and a shift away from preferential procurement under BEE rules to transparent and competitive tender processes. The high percentage of ‘non- revenue’ water must also be reduced.
All the solutions outlined here are premised on state institutions becoming very much more efficient at water management. However, this will be difficult to achieve in the short term at least. South Africa thus needs to learn from the experience of other African countries and start introducing public-private partnerships (PPPs) that would immediately draw private-sector efficiencies into the mix.
Public-private partnerships in water management
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the water sector in Africa date back to 1959, when Cote d’Ivoire successfully embarked on an urban water ‘affermage’ or lease agreement. Under this agreement, the government retained ownership of water infrastructure but responsibility for day-to-day operations was transferred to the private sector. This PPP remains in operation and continues to provide water to more than 7 million people to this day.
Many of the water PPPs in Africa have been implemented with the help of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) forming part of the World Bank. Some of these African PPPs have failed, but the great majority, as the IFC records, have succeeded in ‘improving operational efficiency, reducing non-revenue water, and enhancing labour productivity’.
Some have also mobilised new sources of capital, and involved significant innovation and technology transfers. Overall, the 50 or so PPPs implemented in the water sector in Africa during the past 20 years have generally succeeded in enhancing water management, increasing access to water, and maintaining affordability through increased efficiency and economies of scale.
PPPs can take different forms. Under the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) model, the private sector takes on the task of building and delivering new infrastructure (such as a wastewater treatment plant) and must do so on time and on budget. As the IFC writes, this model ‘encourages the private company to build a high quality asset up front to minimise the maintenance later’. The private sector must also mobilise the capital needed for construction and cannot easily change the contract price if input costs rise. This gives the private partner an important incentive to prevent construction delays and cost overruns, whereas government-managed construction contracts commonly run over budget while falling way behind schedule.
Examples of BOT agreements include a contract for a wastewater treatment plant that was concluded in 2009 in New Cairo City (Egypt), a satellite town of greater Cairo. The New Cairo plant mobilised some $200m in private investment and the new plant was completed in 2012. The BOT model has also been used for a number of potable water treatment plants, including desalination plants. Most of these contracts have been concluded in North African countries, where total investments of this kind have risen to more than $3bn.
A successful BOT has also been implemented in South Africa already. In 1999, soon after the adoption of the National Water Act, the Government showed an interest in supporting flagship projects that would demonstrate how differently things could be done. There was also a significant water problem in Durban, where a wastewater treatment plant south of the city was discharging partially treated sewage effluent into the ocean via a lengthy undersea pipeline. At the same time, two major bulk users of water – a paper-and-pulp plant and an oil-processing company, both located close to this plant – required a constant stream of industrial grade processed water that need not be of potable standard.
Two problems could thus be solved via a single intervention. In 1999 a contract was awarded to Durban Recycling (Pty) Ltd, under which the discharging of sewage effluent into the ocean was ended while the company undertook the bulk supply of industrial grade processed water at a cost below that of potable water. The major technical participant was Vivendi Water, which included various other entities (among them Umgeni Water, Khulani Holdings, Ketachem, and Marubeni Europe). Veolia, a major water services company based in France but with a global footprint, provided some of the technology, including advanced oxidisation of the final effluent stream to destroy all residual pathogens.
The plant was opened in 2001 by Ronnie Kasrils, then minister of water affairs and forestry, who praised the project and publicly affirmed his confidence in it by drinking a glass of treated effluent in the presence of industry leaders and the media. This successful BOT has never received the recognition it deserves. It did, however, become a blueprint for South Africa’s subsequent ‘dual-stream’ reticulation model, in which water of different value and quality is provided to different users, with a preference for recycled grey water.
A second PPP model is the ‘affermage’ or lease agreement, in which the public sector retains ownership of water infrastructure but the responsibility for day-to-day operations is transferred to the private sector. A third model, generally applied in small towns and rural areas, involves the conclusion of a management contract which (as the IFC describes it) ‘allocates the risk of operations, revenue, and collection to private companies, while keeping the costs of service affordable through public funding for capital development’. Adds the IFC:
Some studies of PPPs in urban water utilities have found significant efficiency gains achieved through the involvement of the private party, including reduced water losses, increased staff efficiency, coverage, and daily hours of service. Service delivery by government is often poor because [of] limited capacity and [a] lack of management incentives, [which also] increases its cost... In small towns and villages with few customers, poor populations, and distribution systems ranging from a few hundred to several thousand connections, small local private providers are successfully meeting people’s basic water needs... In small piped systems, there is a strong correlation between PPPs and increases in connections and collections, [which] in turn enhance accountability... A recent review of Uganda’s ten-year experience in small town water PPPs finds that connections have almost tripled since the introduction of PPPs in 2002. Over 1.5 million people are now served through PPPs in small towns, and tariffs have risen by less than inflation.
Experience in Uganda also shows how quickly efficiency gains can be realised through effective PPPs. While the World Bank financed the development of small town water infrastructure, the Ugandan government began introducing one-year annual performance contracts (APCs) that tied the remuneration of local managers (via bonuses and penalties of up to 25% of basic salary) to their attainment of specified targets. Notes the IFC:
Under the APCs, the operational performance of the largest utility [operative in] secondary towns improved strongly: non-revenue water decreased from 32% to 22% in fewer than three years, and bill collection improved dramatically. The introduction of APCs in small towns attracted private sector operators in the management of water supply, improved service quality and raised customer satisfaction levels.... As of 2010, 18 private operations were running 95 water systems in small towns. The number of towns being serviced increased from 15 in 20012 to over 90 in 201011. After the launch of private sector participation reform, private operators in small towns improved tariff collection and achieved almost universal metering, while maintaining affordable tariffs.
The benefits of the affermage model are also illustrated by recent experience in Niger, which decided in 1999 to use this form of PPP to overcome the poor performance of the water sector. A new state-owned company (Société de Patrimoine des Eaux du Niger or SPEN) was established to take over the ownership of water assets and infrastructure development, as well as to oversee the servicing of debt and the monitoring of service quality. The Government retained responsibility for policy, tariff setting, and the overall management of the country’s water resources.
SPEN then entered into a ten-year affermage with a professional operator, the Société d’Exploitation des Eaux du Niger (SEEN), which was accorded an exclusive right to provide water services in SPEN’s area of jurisdiction. A ten-year performance contract specified SEEN’s technical and commercial performance obligations, laid down financial incentives and penalties, and spelt out the operator’s responsibilities for the rehabilitation of water systems. A special multi-sector regulatory agency was created to oversee the contract.
SEEN was incorporated in 2001 with initial capital equivalent to some $2m. International water operator Veolia Water acquired 52% of SEEN, while 34% was owned by private investors, 9% by SEEN’s staff, and 5% by the Niger government. The reform programme and establishment of SEEN attracted a positive response from external financiers, including the World Bank, the African Development Bank, and Chinese investors, who agreed to contribute 85% of the $103m cost of the initial investment programme. Writes the IFC:
Between 2001 and 2013, the performance of the system in SEEN’s service areas improved significantly in terms of access to piped water, reliability of the service, non- revenue water, bill collection ratio, operational efficiency, financial viability, labour productivity, and affordability. For example, the proportion of people with direct access to a residential connection increased from 31 percent to 59 percent, and the number of residential connections increased threefold (from 56 300 to 171 750 units). Since 2006, water has been available on a continuous basis in most urban centres and areas of Niamey. Ninety-eight percent of water samples now comply with bacteriological standards. Non revenue water has declined from 22 percent to about 17 percent. The bill collection ratio of private consumers has increased by six percentage points, from 91 percent to 97 percent. Staff productivity has improved from 8.6 employees to 3.6 employees per 1 000 connections, without any layoff programme, and a 20 percent increase in salary has been instituted. Only five years after the beginning of the reform, the sector was able to recover its operating and maintenance costs, service its debt, and contribute to its capital expenditure from user charges. Since then it has become financially autonomous, and no longer relies on government subsidies.
IFC experience with PPPs in the water sector in Africa shows how much can be gained from partnerships of this kind. It also stresses that success depends on strong political support and a long-term commitment from both partners.
Adds the IFC: ‘For developing countries, dependable funding from the public partner is key to promoting the expansion of access. Maintaining an affordable tariff and keeping overall risk levels acceptable for the private sector are equally necessary. Tellingly, successful water PPPs are usually designed around a mix of funding sources. Therefore, the focus should be on building a partnership that layers a degree of public sector financing on top of private sector skills and expertise. This can improve the sustainability of systems, strengthen financial viability, and boost quality of service.’
Many other countries have also embraced the PPP option to improve the quality of water management. In India, for example, the reform-minded government of Narendra Modi is developing various PPP models for water management in more than 600 cities. At present, almost all Indian water utilities are publicly owned and controlled, but operational efficiency is often limited while only some 20% of water connections are metered. In future, PPPs will be used in many cities to put private players in charge of operations in return for fixed fees. Some PPP agreements may also give private firms responsibility for refurbishing and expanding water infrastructure. State governments and urban municipalities will be expected to contribute to operating costs, but the bulk of funding will be garnered from the private sector.
The lessons for South Africa from the success of PPPs elsewhere in Africa, in particular, are clear and compelling. The country is also fortunate in having a relatively strong tax base, along with significant water infrastructure, important professional skills, and a still vibrant private sector on which to draw. However, various proposed PPP initiatives (including those earlier envisaged for the Indian cities of Delhi and Mumbai) have been defeated by protests sparked by left-leaning civil society organisations seemingly so opposed to the ‘commodification’ of water that they would prefer to see poor people remain without access to clean water rather than allow private firms to supply this for a reasonable fee. The South African Government at times also displays an ideological hostility to the private sector which could undermine the success of water PPPs, despite the urgent need for them.
Conclusion
All available data suggests there is little in South Africa’s water sector to be optimistic about. The level of politicisation has become so high that decision-making is no longer rooted in hydrological realities. Ideology is regarded as paramount, while reality counts only as a secondary factor. The ideological filters in place make it very difficult to carry out any serious technical assessment of water quality or management. In addition, no serious attempt is currently in place to embark on evidence-based policy reforms.
Political aspirations are now also being frustrated by the persistent under-performance of the national economy, which is beginning to translate into major job losses in mining and elsewhere. The Government frequently blames poor economic growth on insufficient transformation – for which it sees the remedy as accelerated and deeper transformation. Nowhere is there a serious effort to ask whether the institutional constraints arising from accelerated transformation might in fact be largely responsible for the dismal performance of the economy.
Until the country reaches a level of political maturity at which such questions can be seriously considered, we are unlikely to resolve either the challenge of low growth or the looming dangers from poor water management. But the public backlash from appalling sewage management could begin to challenge the wisdom of the cadre deployment policy, while the forthcoming municipal elections could provide the setting for a necessary debate around this issue.
Perhaps the greatest failure of the new order since 1994 has been deteriorating water quality. This has been caused primarily by massive failures in the management of municipal wastewater treatment plants, which have made the State the biggest polluter of water in the country. This looming disaster could have been avoided by more rational and less ideologically-driven policy choices. We need to challenge this approach if we are to re-invigorate our democracy and extricate ourselves from the horns of the dilemma arising from the politicisation of water in a highly water-constrained national economy.
***
No Effective Remedial Action at Rooiwal for Fourteen Years
The Rooiwal Wastewater Management Plant (Rooiwal) is a large sewage processing plant north of Pretoria. Initially constructed to provide cooling water for an Eskom power station that has since been mothballed, this plant now discharges 150 million litres per day of effluent into the Apies River. Since this is the maximum capacity of the plant, it has lost its ability to manage the natural peaks that happen daily and the surges that occur after heavy rain, when illegal stormwater pours into the system in vast quantities.
The entry of stormwater stems from inadequate maintenance as well as the illegal connection of gutters to sewers. The Rooiwal plant is now hydraulically overloaded, which means the biological processes needed to digest the sewage into effluent safe enough for discharge have been overwhelmed. Instead, partially treated effluent is regularly discharged into the river.
Rooiwal has thus long been failing to comply with the terms of the water use licence issued to it under the National Water Act of 1998. Its significant discharges of sludge on to farmland that in turn drains into a large wetland are also in breach of this licence.
In 2001, in response to Rooiwal’s persistent failures, the then Department of Water and Environmental Affairs (the department) issued it with an‘exception’ notice, which relaxed the conditions of the water use licence and allowed the plant to exceed normal safety specifications. At the same time, the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (Tshwane) was expected to carry out necessary repairs.
Tshwane responded by drafting an official‘plan of action’– but this was done only tenyearslater, in September 2011. A month thereafter, in October 2011, the department issued a directive for remedial action. It also declared‘a state of emergency’ at Rooiwal because its persistent compliance failures had damaging (even potentially lethal) consequences.
Still no improvements were made. In 2013, with full knowledge of the situation, the department nevertheless issued the plant with a new waste management licence. This licence did, however, lay down a number of additional reporting requirements, which have at least generated a rich paper trail of forensic evidence (including the names of the officials appointed to deal with specific issues).
luded in this paper trail is a document requesting permission to deviate from official procurement processes so as to carry out the emergency repairs the department had demanded back in 2011. A tender was thereafter issued to a professional company to do the remedial work, but this was cancelled when it was discovered that‘fronting’(the exaggeration of black economic empowerment status) had occurred. A second firm of consulting engineers was then appointed, but by then the relevant tendering period had lapsed, which meant this contract could not proceed. This created an internal crisis within the metropolitan authority, which the department tried in various ways to address.
Despite the efforts made, the problem has yet to be rectified. On the contrary, the factors that prompted the declaration of a state of emergency four years ago still remain unchanged. In the interim, a number of the officials tasked with resolving the crisis have either been suspended or re-deployed elsewhere.
Rooiwal presents a classic example of systemic failure, for it lacks both the engineering and the institutional capacity to self-correct. External intervention is thus needed if a major health crisis is to be averted.
Professor Anthony Turton is a member of the Centre for Environmental Management, University of the Free State, and serves under the UNESCO Chair in Groundwater in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of the Western Cape.
He also advises corporations on water-related risk and opportunities.
This article first appeared in Liberty, an occasional publication of the Institute for Race Relations  and was made possible with support from the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom.
Article by ArticleForge

Effects of initial GaN growth mode on the material and electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

The Japan Society of Applied Physics
The Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) serves as an academic interface between science and engineering and an interactive platform for academia and the industry. JSAP is a "conduit" for the transfer of fundamental concepts to the industry for development and technological applications.
JSAP was established as an official academic society in 1946, and since then, it has been one of the leading academic societies in Japan. The society's interests cover a broad variety of scientific and technological fields, and JSAP continues to explore state-of-the-art and interdisciplinary topics.
To this end, the JSAP holds annual conferences; publishes scientific journals; actively sponsors events, symposia, and festivals related to science education; and compiles information related to state-of-the-art technology for the public.


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A These options have now been added to the CMA SmartDashboard in the IPS tab B The Merge and Override options are not supported in R71 C The options are available in Global Smart Dash boad / IPS tab in Profiles options D From the Provider-1 Properties in MDG, select the Global Policies tab and enable the check box 'Enable legacy SmartDefense merging options' Answer: B QUESTION: 171 You are the responsible administrator for two customers managed by your MSP You must configure each CMA with local objects as well as rules You have to configure the IPS accordingly In addition, you will configure and assign Global Rules for your customers What minimum rights do you need at the MDS? A Provider Superuser B Customer Manager C Customer Superuser D Global Manager Answer: D QUESTION: 172 One of your customers will not renew their subscription for the IPS Software Blade, and decides to cancel their subscription early What happens if they don't allow the IPS service to expire? A When the subscription has ended, the IPS falls back to run only checks that were active with the first version published B Since the customer is still subscribed to IPS service via MDG, all things run as before The MSP has to take care that customers will renew their subscription C New updates are not possible after the IPS service blade has ended, but all checks being downloaded before are still configured and active D IPS update service is free of charge and therefore there is no time limit for it Answer: A QUESTION: 173 You manage several customers with Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 Two of the customers need to be connected via a global VPN using VPN Communities in a Global Rule In the MDG, you configure both Gateways to be enabled for Global use Then you define a Global VPN Community in the Global SmartDashboard How do you configure a rule so that encrypted HTTP traffic is accepted between the corresponding Gateways? A In the menu of the Global SmartDashboard, select Policy > Convert To Simplified Mode, follow the Wizard and define a rule accepting HTTP traffic that fits to the community listed in the column VPN B It's possible to define Global VPN Communities, but it is not possible to use them in a Global Rule Base C In the Global SmartDashboard, define a rule accepting the wanted traffic In the column VPN select the VPN community y5o8u have defined D After having defined a Global VPN Community, the Global Rule Base needs to be assigned to both customers The VPN can only be defined in each (local) CMA individually Answer: A QUESTION: 174 Steve is the Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 Superuser of an MSP having a Provider-1 R71 environment with 2 MDS Manager systems, 4 MDS Containers and 2 MLM's One of the customers of the MSP requires redundancy for the CMA's Steve has already added a secondary CMA, but the customer insists on having one more CMA What is the best way to do this? A Steve can add a third CMA on the same MDS as the secondary CMA as a single customer can only use up to two MDS Containers for CMA's B Provider-1 only supports 2 CMA's per customer, so Steve will have to install a Security Management Server for backing up the CMA C This is not possible as Provider-1 supports only one backup / secondary CMA D Steve can add a third CMA on another MDS Container Answer: D QUESTION: 175 Select the correct statement about the following Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1environment example A This will never work because all the MDS containers must be on the same LAN and it is also a license violation B This setup will not work as the MDS Co5n9tainer-HA can only host CMA-HA's C This will not work as the number of CMA-HA's must be equal to the number of primary CMA's D This setup will work without any issues as Provider-1 supports a mix of Primary and Secondary CMA's on the same MDS Container as long as they are of different customers Answer: D QUESTION: 176 In Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 R71, the Security Management backup server can be installed on: A any platform where Security Management Server is supported B any platform where Security Management Server is supported except Windows or Nokia IPSO C SecurePlatform or Windows Server D only SecurePlatform Pro Answer: B QUESTION: 177 As in the example below, MDS-ManagerAndContainer is Active whereas MDS-Manager2 is in Standby mode If a Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 Superuser logs into MDS- ManagerAndContainer in Read/Write mode using the MDG while the first user is still logged in, and another Provider-1 Superuser tries to log in to MDS-Manager2, what will happen? The second user will: A get an application error and the MDG will close B get a message informing him that another user is logged in with Read/Write access Hence, he will be allowed to log in with Read-Only access C also be allowed to log in through the MDG in Read/Write mode and they can both make changes to the Provider-1 configuration within the MDG D get a message informing him that another user is logged in with Read/Write access, and an option to disconnect the first user will be given QUESTION: 178 Which of the following is the correct syntax for mirroring all CMA's from FirstMDS to SecondMDS? A cma_mirror_all -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS B p1shell/mirrorcma -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS -c 2 C mdscmd mirrorcma -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS -c 2 D mirrorcma -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS -c 2 Answer: C QUESTION: 179 Let's assume that your Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 configuration has only one MDS You want the installation to be redundant, so you decide to set up a secondary MDS Container and Manager While completing the installation, you need to provide the activation key The installation is completed after a reboot The final steps are taken with the MDG connecting to the primary MDS Which of the following statements is TRUE? A When the activation key is provided, synchronization at MDS as well as CMA level is started automatically B The first step is to define the secondary MDS in the MDG and to provide the activation key After this is done, it is not possible to synchronize at MDS level only because only the complete configuration of a MDS can be synchronized (including all CMAs) C Before synchronization can start, both the activation key and performing an Install Database are necessary D When the secondary MDS is defined in the MDG and the activation key has been correct, synchronization at the MDS level can be started immediately Answer: D QUESTION: 180 NetSec MSP has Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 R71 in their New York network They have 1 MDS Manager and 1 MDS Container on a Solaris server with 10 CMA's NetSec has recently setup a network in Dallas and wants to use the Provider-1 MDS Container hosting backup CMA's for all the 10 customers The management is not in favor of buying a Solaris Server, hence they are asking if they can use SecurePlatform on Intel hardware How can NetSec implement this requirement? SecurePlatform in Dallas and then associate the two to enable High Availability' B As it is not possible to have a secondary CMA on a different operating system, NetSec will have to install 10 Security Management Servers to backup the CMA's' C They can have the new Provider-1 R71 MDS Container on SecurePlatform and host all the secondary CMA's on this MDS; Provider-1 R71 HA supports different operating systems' D They will have to buy a Solaris Server to install the MDS Container and host the secondary CMA's on that as it is required for the HA systems to be running the same operating system and version' Answer: C QUESTION: 181 When importing the configuration of a Management Server, the CMA is also imported The name of the CMA is the same name that the Management Server had before How do you configure a name change to the CMA before the CA is re- established again? A At the MDS, change to the corresponding CMA context using the mdsenv command Then issue the command fwm sic_reset to reset the CA completely B In the MDG, select the CMA you want to change With a right-click on the object, select edit and change the name in the window that opens C In the CLI of the MDS environment, issue the command fwm sic_reset You will be asked which SIC you want to reset Select the appropriate CMA and the name as well as the CMA will be changed D The name of a CMA cannot be changed by design because this name is used in certificates Answer: A QUESTION: 182 Importing an existing Management Server configuration into a MDS via CLI might be useful First, the new customer needs to be defined After having defined the CMA, an existing configuration can be imported How can this be done? A At the CLI of the MDS type\linecma_migrate B It is not possible to import a configuration using CLI This can only done using the MDG C At the CLI of the MDS type\linecma_migrate –s -t D At the CLI of the MDS type\linecma_migrate -t –s Answer: A CheckPoint 156-815-71 Exam (Check Point Certified Managed(R) Security Expert R71) Detailed Information Training & Certification Check Point offers a wide range of education programs, professional certifications and self-study resources developed in-house by Check Point security experts. Training is available from our global network of Authorized Training Centers (ATC). TRAINING CALENDAR FIND A TRAINING CENTER CERTIFICATION FAQ Training Together with our Authorized Training Centers, we offer comprehensive technical training and certifications for IT security professionals who deploy and manage Check Point Security solutions. Entry-level Security Awareness Text book and course covers important principles of CyberSecurity from a vendor neutral perspective. Concepts include issues of physical and document security along with data protection and recovery in the event of data or systems loss. Security Principles Associate Core Security Administrator Training Three-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage daily operations of Check Point Security Gateway and Management Software Blades systems on the GAiA operating system. Security Administrator R77.30 Security Administrator R80 Core Security Expert Training Advanced three-day course teaches how to build, modify, deploy and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems on the GAiA operating system. Hands-on lab exercises teach how to debug firewall processes, optimize VPN performance and upgrade Management Servers. Security Engineering NextGen Security Training Learn how to deploy the latest cyber-security solutions to defend and prevent today’s evolving threats Threat Prevention Secure Web Gateway Advanced Security Training Learn to manage virtualized security in high-end networks and advanced security optimization techniques. MDSM with VSX Security Master Custom Training Certifications Check Point Certifications mean expertise with the technology that secures the internet for all Fortune and Global 100 companies. The benefits of becoming Check Point certified include the skills to support and sell Check Point products, 2-year expert access to our SecureKnowledge database and advanced product documentation. Getting Started: A Check Point UserCenter or PartnerMap account is required to receive certification benefits. You can create a new account at the User Center. If you are not sure about your account, please contact Account Services for verification. You also need a Pearson VUE account, and the email address should be the same as your UserCenter account. Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80 Essential certification for IT Admins who manage daily operations of Check Point Security solutions. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R77.30 Essential certification for IT Admins who manage daily operations of Check Point Security solutions. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE) R77.30 The next level of certification proves troubleshooting skills and the ability to maximize the performance of security networks. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Managed Security Expert (CCMSE) Advanced certification proves expertise in Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM) R77.30 Our most technical certification proves advanced use of time-saving commands to configure and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems. GENERAL INQUIRIES Q: What is the difference between “Certification” and “Accreditation”? A: Check Point recognizes those professionals who have passed a rigorous, thorough examination process with a “Certification”. Certifications are based on proctored exams derived from comprehensive job models and detailed instructional objectives. Accreditations are derived from product specific content exams delivered in a less formal examination setting and recognize an individual’s effort to stay current on the latest products. Q: What versions are available? A: Our Current certifications are based on R77.30 and the new R80. Q: How long will R77.30 be available? A: Current projections have the R77.30 exams retiring 3rd quarter 2017. Q: How long does a certification last? A: Certification, like security, must be kept current to be truly effective - which is why we strongly encourage you to constantly refresh and keep your certification current. Certifications expire after 24 months. Q: Where can I take a Check Point certification exam? A: Check Point professional certification exams are proctored through Pearson VUE, a third party testing vendor with over 3.500 locations worldwide. You can register for any Check Point exam and earn your certification by visiting Pearson VUE website and creating a Web Profile. Q: Do I have to take classes in order to take the exams? A: No, it is possible to take an exam with only your own experience or self-study using the Check Point courseware, but we highly recommend taking a class instead. Instructor-led training accelerates and focuses your learning, gives you hands-on experience and an opportunity to make mistakes in the lab, and is much more cost-effective than self-study in your spare time. CHECK POINT EDUCATION SERVICES CERTIFICATION FAQ Updated September 2016 2 Q: What certifications are available? A: Check Point certifications are structured around comprehensive job models for administration, engineering (Expert), enterprise management, and advanced systems (Security Master). Certifications include: Core Security courses establish a strong foundation in essential Check Point product knowledge and skills Certifications Related Courses Exams CCSPA Check Point Certified Security Principles Associate Principles of Network Security #156-110 CCSA Check Point Certified Security Administrator Check Point Security Administration #156-215 CCSE Check Point Certified Security Expert Check Point Security Administration #156-215 Check Point Security Engineering #156-315 Advanced Specializations recognize your proficiency and expertise in specific disciplines and technologies Certifications Related Courses Exams CCSM Check Point Certified Security Master Check Point Certified Security Master #156-115 CCMSE Check Point Managed Security Expert Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension #156-820 Q: What are the prerequisites for each Check Point certification? A: Check Point certifications are designed to build upon the knowledge and skills of the previous courses, reinforcing lessons learned and extending your competencies with ever more complex and valuable skills. Certifications Prerequisites CCSPA Check Point Certified Security Principles Associate None CCSA R77 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R77 TCP/IP and routing fundamentals CCSA R80 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R80 TCP/IP and routing fundamentals CCSE R77 Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 CCSA R77 CCSE R77 Update Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 Any prior CCSE up to R65 CCSM Check Point Certified Security Master R77 CCSE R77 CCMSE R77 Check Point Managed Security Expert R77 CCSE R77 Updated September 2016 3 Q: What courses should I take to prepare for the exams? A: To help prepare for exams, you should consider the following corresponding courses: Core Security courses establish a strong foundation in essential Check Point product knowledge and skills Exams Courses Certifications #156-110 Principles of Network Security CCSPA Check Point Certified Security Principles Associate #156-215 Check Point Security Administration R80 CCSA R80 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R80 #156-215 Check Point Security Administration R77 CCSA R77 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R77 #156-215 Check Point Security Administration R77 CCSE R77 Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 #156-315 Check Point Security Engineering R77 #156-915 CCSE R77 Update CCSE R77 Update Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 Advanced Specializations recognize your proficiency and expertise in specific disciplines and technologies Exams Courses Certifications #156-115.77 Check Point Security Master R77 CCSM R77 Check Point Certified Security Master #156-820.77 Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension CCMSE R77 Check Point Managed Security Expert R77 Q: Is study material available? A: Exam objectives are posted on the Education Services page for reference, but all official training materials are provided when you attend instructor-led training through one of our Authorized Training Center (ATC) partners. Q: Where can I find training classes? A: Courses are offered through our network of over 230 Authorized Training Centers (ATC) around the globe. Use our partner locator to find an ATC near you and sign up for training today! Q: Are classes available globally? A: Yes! We have Authorized Training Centers (ATC) in over 42 countries worldwide - just use our partner locator to find an ATC near you and sign up for training. If for any reason you can't find an ATC near you, send an email to us directly at training@checkpoint.com and ask about on-site training options. Q: How long are the classes recommended for certification exams? A: Check Point recommends minimum time frames for each course, but individual Authorized Training Centers (ATC) may choose to adjust the time to offer more 'intensive' courses or to cover topics in more detail. You should check with your local ATC for the exact length of each course to be sure the time fits your schedule. Updated September 2016 4 Q: I know that CCSA certification is a prerequisite for CCSE. Can I achieve a CCSE R80 certification with a CCSA R70 or later certification? A: No. Since R80 is a completely new product version with many new features, only CCSA R80 certification provides the background necessary to be a prerequisite to CCSE R80 certification. However, if you have a CCSE based on NGX or the Blade technology, you are eligible to take our upgrade exam #156-915 to earn your CCSE R80 certification. Q: When will my R77 certifications expire? A: Check Point Certifications are good for 24 months. Q: My R70 certifications have already expired. Do I need to start over with CCSA R80 to update to CCSE R80? A: Actually, you don’t. Even though your certification has expired, the eligibility for updates to the latest version has not. If you ever held a CCSE certification, you are eligible for the Update exam. Q: Why has the 156-915.77 exam been removed from the exam list? A: The 156-915.77 exam was retired as soon as the 156-915.80 exam was released. Check Point only offers updates to the latest version of the product. Q: How can I learn about updates in the Check Point Certified Professional Program? A: You can always find the latest information on our News and Updates page, including special offers on the most indemand courses and certifications. Back to top MY INFORMATION Q: Why is my Check Point Professional ID Number important? A: It represents your personal identification with Check Point Software Technologies and establishes proof of your certification. You are only allowed one Certified Professional ID number. Q: How do I get my Check Point Professional ID Number? A: It is assigned to you when you register with VUE for the first time to take an exam. It will be in the form CP00000nnnnn. Q: When do I use my Check Point Professional ID Number? A: Whenever you contact VUE to register for another exam session, and whenever you contact Check Point regarding any certification issue. Q: Why do I need to provide an email address? A: An email address is necessary in order to create your User Center account - your access point for certification benefits - as well as keep you up to date with any important changes or updates. Q: If I change jobs, will I still have access to my certification information and benefits? A: Yes! Your certification is yours. However, since your email address is based on your work email you will want to contact Account Services via accountservices@checkpoint.com to update your User Center account and request that your information be linked to your new email address. Q: How do I advise Check Point of any change of address or other relevant information? A: You can send your profile updates to accountservices@checkpoint.com. Back to top Updated September 2016 5 WHAT ABOUT THE BENEFITS Q: I just passed my exams. When can I expect to receive my certificate? A: Check Point now provides e-Certificates that you can access from your User Center profile. Once we receive your exam results we'll update your User Center account with your new credentials, giving you immediate access to your online benefits like Access to SecureKnowledge and your on-line Certification Profile. Q. How do I download the electronic copy of my certification? A: To download your certificate(s), please follow the instructions below. 1. Log into User Center at https://usercenter.checkpoint.com/usercenter/portal 2. Click "Assets/Info". 3. Click "My Certifications" under "My Info" option. 4. Click "Download" to the right of the certificate to open/save/print. a. Open to print. b. Save to print later. c. Cancel to do nothing. Q: What type of SecureKnowledge access do CCSA's get? A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCSA contract. Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCSE get? A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCSE contract. Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCSM get? A: Expert Access for the duration of the CCSM contract. Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCMSE get? A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCMSE contract. Q: How do I access my benefits? A: By setting up a User Centre account based on the email address you used with VUE, you can have access to our Certified Professionals Only web site and to advanced features of Secure Knowledge. Please try the following: If you do not currently have a User Center account, please visit the following URL: https://usercenter.checkpoint.com/usercenter/index.jsp You may reference at the bottom of the page a section titled "New Customers": 1. Click on the hyperlink titled "Sign Up Now!" 2. Begin completing your profile. 3. Use the email ID provided VUE for testing. 4. Set your own password. Q: How do I find the Certified Professionals Only website? A: By clicking on the link https://www.checkpoint.com/services/education/cpo/index.html Q: Do I have access to Check Point online technical support? A: Yes. As a Certified Professional you have Advanced Access to SecureKnowledge, our online technical knowledge database with thousands of solutions, how to articles, and troubleshooting tips to solve your most difficult issues. Q: Are there logos associated with Check Point certifications? A: Yes. As a certified professional you have usage rights to the logo for your certification level. Logos for each Check Point certification are downloadable from the Certified Professional Only website. Updated September 2016 6 Q: Will becoming a Check Point Certified Professional improve my career or employment opportunities? A: Companies hire certified professionals to ensure maximum security and availability of valuable business assets, and know certified professionals are more efficient, productive, and deliver lower total cost of ownership from Check Point solutions. And as one of over 50,000 Check Point Certified Professionals worldwide, you'll get immediate recognition of your experience, knowledge, and abilities while investing in your professional development and security career. Q: Where do I go to access my benefits? A: All benefits are accessed through your User Center account. Create a User Center account now if you don't already have one. If you have any problems with creating your account and linking your certifications, contact accountservices@checkpoint.com Q: Why is my certification information not listed in my User Center account? A: Your certification information could not be listed in your User Center account for one of the following reasons: • We tried to activate your benefits but there was no User Center account with the email address we have on file for you. Please check to ensure that the email account you provided VUE for registration matches the email account you used to set up your User Center account. • The benefits you received from a certain Check Point certification have expired. • We might not have received your results from Pearson VUE. If you do not see your benefits or certification listed with your User Center account, send an email to accountservices@checkpoint.com and we'll try to resolve the issue for you. Q: What email address should be used when registering for an exam? A: It is important that the email address used when registering for an exam is the email address associated to your User Center profile. This ensures that all certifications are reflected within the User Center and the e-certificate can be downloaded via the account. Q: Can certifications get tied to an alias email address? A: All certifications must be tied to a person-specific email address. Q: How do I update the email address associated to my User Center profile? A: For assistance or the steps of how to update your email address online, please contact our Account Services department for assistance; accountservices@checkpoint.com. Q: What should I do if my Pearson VUE profile has the wrong email address? A: Please contact Pearson VUE for assistance; http://www.pearsonvue.com/checkpoint/contact/ Back to top TELL ME ABOUT THE EXAMS Q: What is the difference between “low stakes” and “high stakes” exams? A: All Check Point exams are delivered through Pearson VUE. “Low stakes” exams are those delivered over the Internet to your desktop. They do not require attendance at a Pearson VUE Authorized Testing Center (ATC). “High stakes” exams are only delivered at Pearson VUE Authorized Testing Centers (ATC) and delivery meets certain exacting compliance standards. Q: In what order should I take the exams? A: Courses, certifications, and exams are all designed to build on the lessons learned and develop your skills and knowledge, so we recommend starting with CCSA R77 and CCSE R77 to get a core security foundation. From there you can choose the specialization or area of expertise that best matches your job role or career goals. See the complete list of courses, exams, and prerequisites earlier in the FAQ for more information. Updated September 2016 7 Q: How much do the exams cost? A: Exams vary in price between US $150-$200, but exact pricing is available through Pearson VUE. Q: Where can I take a Check Point certification exam? A: Check Point exams are offered through Pearson VUE, a third party testing vendor with over 3,500 testing centers worldwide. Register for your exam at a testing location near you. Q: What is the format of the exams? A: The exams are composed of multiple choice and scenario questions. All questions are “Select the BEST answer” type questions. There are no multiple response. Q: How long are the exams? A: We use a 90-minute exam in all English-speaking countries. Non-English speaking countries receive an additional 30 minutes. Q: How do I know I am ready for an exam? A: If you are preparing for the CCSA certification and want to take the 156-215 exam, you can determine if you are ready by taking the 156-601 CCSA R77 practice exam. This exam presents 40 questions from a subset of the actual exam pool. Feedback is limited to providing the correct answer during the exam. If you are preparing to complete the CCSE certification and want to take the 156-315 exam, you can determine if you are ready by taking the 156-602 CCSE R77 practice exam. This exam presents 40 questions from a subset of the actual exam pool. Feedback is limited to providing the correct answer during the exam. Q: Are the Check Point certification exams adaptive? A: Check Point has no plans at this time to move into adaptive exams. Q: Do any of the exams contain questions where the correct answer relies on the selection of multiple responses, even though the exam doesn't indicate to check more than one? A: Although the instructions for each exam state that there is one BEST answer, in truth the best answer may be a combination of more than one in the final results. We do this to evaluate how each student reaches their conclusion and makes difficult choices, just like you will be faced with on the job. However, there is no partial credit for incorrectly marked questions. Q: Should I have experience with Check Point products before attempting to pass an exam? A: Surveys of certified professionals suggest that a candidate have one to two years’ experience with the product in a production environment before attempting the CCSA certification. Since that isn’t practical in today’s environment, we recommend six months after training. A similar interval trended when studying the Engineering tasks of a certified CCSE professional. We recommend one year. The new Check Point Security Master certification job profile suggests five years’ experience before challenging the exam. Of course, this varies by individual. Q: Can I take the CCSA and CCSE exams on the same day? A: Yes, you can take the CCSA exam and later that same day, challenge the CCSE exam. Q: Does Check Point have an exam retake policy? A: Yes. If you fail an exam and want to retake it, the following applies: • Wait 24 hours after first unsuccessful attempt • Wait 30 days after each subsequent attempt thereafter Note: Once you pass an exam you cannot take it again. Updated September 2016 8 Q: I have taken the exam twice, and scored exactly the same thing. How is this possible? Is there a problem with the exam or the testing software? A: This is actually quite common, and indicates how reliable Check Point's exams are in testing your knowledge and skills. To create the best certification exams, we focus on consistency and on how an exam will measure competencies. There is a related learning/testing condition called "plateauing". Let's say you've studied hard, practiced the labs and exercises, and absorbed all you can through the current study approach. Studies and experience show you will consistently score the same regardless how much you review the material beyond that point. In this case the best solution for you would be to take a different study approach to gain new insight, and retain more knowledge than you would in just one method - we suggest taking an additional class, or working through some different practice exercises. Q: Does Check Point penalize incorrect answers? A: Check Point does not subtract points from your score for answering a question incorrectly. You will simply not get credit for that question. When taking one of our exams, answer as many questions as you can, even if you are not certain of your answer. Back to top MAINTAINING CURRENCY Q: I wanted to extend my certification by retaking my last exam but got the information from Pearson VUE that I’m not allowed to do so because I’ve already finished that. How do I extend my certification? A: Check Point policy is that you do not retake an exam you have already passed. You either update or upgrade. Ideally, the best course is to take the next higher exam. Q: What is the difference between “Inactive” and “Valid”? A: “Inactive” means that a candidate has not kept their certifications current in an aggressive threat environment. All professional certifications - those taken in a proctored exam environment - are good for, or considered “Current”, for two years. “Valid” refers to the candidate actually having met the requirements for Certification. Q: What are Continuing Education Credits? A: Check Point values lifelong learning. It is essential in an ever changing threat environment. Candidates can acquire Continuing Education Credits by participating in certain events, or by taking certain Low Stakes exams. Candidates are eligible to acquire two Continuing Education credits in a two year certification period Q: What low stakes exams are eligible for Continuing Education Credits? A: Where Check Points High stakes professional exams are primarily focused on performance-based questions, lowstakes exams are focused more on product knowledge and product features. Currently, on the Pearson VUE exam site, the following low stakes exams are available: 156-728 – Gaia Overview 156-729 – Advanced IPS 156-730 – SandBlast 156-733 – Mobile Threat Prevention SE Any two of these will renew your current CCSE certification for one year 1. What are the pre-requisites for the CCSE R75 exam? CCSA R70 or CCSA 71 or CCSA R75. 2. How can I update my R65 certification? If you have any CCSA R60 certification, take the CCSA R70/71 Update Training Blade to update your CCSA certification. If you have a CCSE R60 certification, take the CCSE R70/71 Update Training Blade to update your CCSE certification. 3. How long is my certification valid? Check Point certifications are valid for 2 years. CCMAs are valid for 3 years. Any certification more than three (3) years old is not considered current. Certifications become inactive after five years. Your benefits may be suspended if your certification is not current. Your certification can be maintained with annual continuing education credits. 4. What are ‘continuing education credits’? Continuing education credits help you maintain Check Point certifications without starting over with every product release. Continuing education credits can be earned in a variety of ways like completing shorter training lessons (Training Blades), by participating in our test development process, and even attending CPX. 5. What are the pre-requisites for CCMA? CCSE is mandatory; CCMSE is suggested. 6. Do you have a test-out option? Though highly recommended, it is not a requirement to attend a training course before challenging the exam. You may test at any time, however it is advised you spend at least 6 months working with Check Point products before attempting to achieve certification. 7. Are study materials available? Free study guides and practice exams are available for download at http://www.checkpoint.com/services/education/index.html#resources. Courseware can be purchased on our eStore and Training is available from an ATC. 8. How soon can I re-take an exam if I fail? If you fail an exam you must wait 24 hours before your 2nd attempt, and 30 days for the 3rd attempt. Once you pass a test you cannot take it again for a higher score. 9. Can I get exam insurance? Students automatically get a 50% re-take discount on any 2nd attempt of the CCSA and CCSE R75 exams. 10. I only failed by 1 point and based on my calculations I should have passed – what happened? The function of certification is to provide proof the Check Point Certified professional is qualified to protect the lifeblood of organizations – their data. Check Point takes this very seriously and we constantly strive to administer the most effective exams. Passing is calculated by comparing the number of questions answered correctly versus the number of questions answered incorrectly. Not all sections of the test are weighted equally. ©2012 Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. . Classification: [Unrestricted] — For everyone | P. 2 11. Can I take any R65 level exams? No, all R65 exams have been retired except for the Japanese versions. Our philosophy is to provide training and certification only for current technologies so our partners and customers will always benefit from the latest security advancements. 12. Where can I find more information about Check Point Certified Professionals? The Check Point Certified Professionals website and newsletter are a benefit which contain special information and resources that are not available to the public. 13. What happens when I pass my exam? When will I receive my Certificate? After you pass a Check Point exam at VUE, your exam results are uploaded. On the 15th and 30th, we process all certification results and order certification kits. It takes 6-8 weeks to receive your certificate. Your advanced access to Secure Knowledge and the Certified Professionals website is established once you achieve certification. 14. Why can’t I have more than one account at Pearson VUE test centers? Check Point only allows one Pearson VUE account to track your Check Point exams. If you change companies, please update the contact information in your Pearson VUE account instead of creating a new one so your Check Point certifications will follow you. You can verify your accounts with Customer Service here http://www.vue.com/checkpoint/contact/ 15. What happens if someone gets caught cheating? How do you prevent it? Every individual who takes an exam signs our Non-disclosure agreement. Anyone caught in the act of cheating or sharing exam items will have their Check Point certifications revoked for 2 years. All testing privileges and partner program participation will be deactivated during this time. Check Point collaborates with major technology companies to prevent cheating through test pattern analysis and distribution best practices. Together we identify and take legal action against unauthorized test centers and inaccurate “brain dump” sites. 16. What are the benefits of Check Point certification? Check Point Certified Professionals receive access to the Advanced SecureKnowledge base, Certified Professionals only website and quarterly newsletter for 2 years. Check Point Certified Master Architects (CCMA) receive 3 years Expert level access to SecureKnowledge. 17. How do I access my certification benefits? Make sure your Check Point User Center (UC) email address matches the email address registered with Pearson VUE. Your UC profile will automatically be updated with each certification, including advanced access to SecureKnowledge and the Certified Professionals only website. Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80 Today, managing security is a complex endeavor. The key to managing this complexity is through security consolidation – bringing all security protections and functions under one umbrella. With R80 management, security consolidation is fully realized. This three-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage the daily operations of your Check Point infrastructure with R80. TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC Course Description Learn How To Install R80 management and a security gateway in a distributed environment Configure objects, rules, and settings to define a security policy Work with multiple concurrent administrators and define permission profiles Configure a Virtual Private Network and work with Check Point clustering Perform periodic administrator tasks as specified in administrator job descriptions Prerequisites Basic knowledge of networking 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended How You Will Benefit Be prepared to defend against network threats Evaluate existing security policies and optimize the rule base Manage user access to corporate LANs Monitor suspicious network activities and analyze attacks Troubleshoot network connections Implement Check Point backup techniques Exam Information Exam# 156-215.80 What You Need To Know Check Point Technology Overview Security Policy Management Monitoring Traffic and Connections Network Address Translations Basic Concepts of VPN Managing User Access Working with ClusterXL Administrator Task Implementation Prerequisites 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended Check Point User Center account Pearson VUE Test Center account How You Will Benefit CCSA’s rank higher than other security vendor professionals Validation you have the skills to implement the latest network security advancements Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R77.30 Advance your knowledge on the GAiA operating system! 3-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage daily operations of Check Point Security Gateway and Management Software Blades systems on the GAiA operating system. TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC DOWNLOAD STUDY GUIDE Course Description Learn How To Install the security gateway in a distributed environment Configure rules on Web and Gateway servers Create a basic rule base in SmartDashboard and assign permissions Schedule backups and seamless upgrades with minimal downtime Monitor and troubleshoot IPS and common network traffic Prerequisites Basic knowledge of networking Windows Server and/or UNIX skills Internet and TCP/IP experience How You Will Benefit Be prepared to defend against network threats Evaluate existing security policies and optimize the rule base Manage user access to corporate LANs Monitor suspicious network activities and analyze attacks Troubleshoot network connections Protect email and messaging content Exam Information Exam# 156-215.77 What You Need To Know Check Point Technology Overview Deployment Platforms and Security Policies Monitoring Traffic and Connections Network Address Translations User Management and Authentication Using SmartUpdate Implementing Identity Awareness Configuring VPN tunnels Resolving security administration issues Prerequisites 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account How You Will Benefit CCSA’s rank higher than other security vendor professionals Validation you have the skills to implement the latest network security advancements Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access Security Engineering (Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE) R77.30) Advanced 3-day course teaches how to build, modify, deploy and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems on the GAiA operating system. Hands-on lab exercises teach how to debug firewall processes, optimize VPN performance and upgrade Management Servers. See course description TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC DOWNLOAD STUDY GUIDE Course Description Learn How To Backup your Security Gateway and Management Server Build, test and troubleshoot a clustered Security Gateway Upgrade and troubleshoot a Management Server Configure and maintain security acceletration solutions Manage, test and optimize corporate VPN tunnels Prerequisites Security Administration Course or CCSA certification (R70 or later) Windows Server, UNIX and networking skills and TCP/IP experience Certificate management and system adminstration How You Will Benefit Build, test and troublehoot numerous deployment scenarios Apply insider tips troubleshooting Check Point Security Systems Practice advanced upgrading techniques Migrate to a clustering security solution Create events for compliance reporting Manage internal and external access to corporate resources Exam Information EXAM #156-315.77 What You Need To Know Check Point Technology Overview Deployment Platforms and Security Policies Monitoring Traffic and Connections Network Address Translations User Management and Authentication Using SmartUpdate Implementing Identity Awareness Configuring VPN tunnels Resolving security administration issues Prerequisites CCSA Certification – R70 or later Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account Get Ready Download the study guide Search for training from your local ATC Schedule your exam at VUE test centers Update Exam UPDATE EXAM #156-915.77 What You Need To Know If you have any CCSE certification, you can save time and maintain your certification with the CCSE Update exam! The CCSE Update only tests your knowledge on the latest product release. To prepare you should train or study the full CCSE course. Prerequisites CCSE Certification – any previous version Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account MDSM with VSX (Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension) 5-day advanced course teaches how to design, install, configure and manage Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension. TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC Course Description Learn How To Install, configure and troubleshoot Multi-Domain Security Managment Configure and implement a Global Policy Transition and consolidate physcial firewalls to a virtualized environment Prerequisites CCSE or equivalent experience Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account How You Will Benefit Consolidate multiple firewalls onto a single management platform Convert a security management server to a domain management server Use advanced migration tools to quickly migrate existing configurations Apply common troubleshooting best practices Implement MDS High-Availaibility Exam Information Exam #156-820.77 What You Need To Know Install, configure and manage the MDM environment Discribe common deployment scenarios Describe the traffic inspection process Configure DMS High Availability Configure and implement a Global Policy Apply common troubleshooting practices Prerequisites CCSE R75 or later 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products Check Point User Center account How You Will Benefit Check Point Certified Professionals rank higher than other security vendor professionals Validation you have the skills to manage enterprise security deployments Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM) R77.30 Our most advanced technical 3-day course teaches how to use advanced commands to configure and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems. 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