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310-152 - Sun Certified Backup and Recovery Engineer (emphasis on Solstice Backup) - Dump Information

Vendor : SUN
Exam Code : 310-152
Exam Name : Sun Certified Backup and Recovery Engineer (emphasis on Solstice Backup)
Questions and Answers : 115 Q & A
Updated On : October 25, 2017
PDF Download Mirror : 310-152 Brain Dump
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310-152 Questions and Answers


QUESTION: 107

You are engaged to deliver a backup and recovery solution for an Enterprise data center. A gap analysis has been performed. The hardware and software have been sized to meet the customers expectation. Based on this effort, what can you expect?

  1. The solution may need to be redesigned while on-site.
  2. The delivery and implementation phase may go smoothly.
  3. The hardware and software will not meet customer expectations.
  4. The customer will be disappointed with the delivery and implementation effort.

Answer: B


QUESTION: 108

You have a small datacenter consisting of five Ultra-10 machines, one E450 server, and an L1000 tape library. Your next project is to come up with a backup and recovery software solution for this datacenter. Management has decided to put you in charge of this task, however, they have a couple of requirements for the software solution:
  1. The software must allow for automatic recycling of tapes because the datacenter will not be staffed every day.
  2. The software must also allow scheduled cloning of tapes. This way the tapes that are cloned can be taken away for offsite storage. Which software solution should you choose based on the hardware configuration and the requirements from management?

  1. Solstice Backup network edition
  2. Solstice Backup workgroup edition
  3. VERITAS NetBackup datacenter edition
  4. VERITAS NetBackup business server edition

Answer: A


QUESTION: 109

You are the Backup and Recovery Administrator for a server centric datacenter. There are five servers that have DLT based autoloaders directly attached to each server via SCSI connections. You have been asked to use VERITAS NetBackup software. Which is the correct NetBackup

product?

  1. NetBackup Datacenter version 3.2
  2. NetBackup Datacenter version 3.4
  3. NetBackup Business Server version 3.2
  4. NetBackup Business Server version 3.4

Answer: B


QUESTION: 110

You are the Backup and Recovery Administrator for a server-centric datacenter, with five servers each with one DLT 7000 based autoloader (total of five) directly attached to each server. The servers and ten workstations all need to be backed up. Each server contains 100 GBytes of data while each workstation has 5 GBytes of data. You have an 8-hour window to back up the data. What is the minimum number of DLT 7000 drives that will enable full backups in native mode to finish during the backup window?

  1. 2
  2. 3
  3. 4
  4. 5

Answer: C


QUESTION: 111

You need to configure a backup system that meets requirements to:
  1. Minimize the amount of manual tape handling required to do restores from backups performed in the last 30 days
  2. Minimize the number of tapes used for backups
Which should you consider in order to meet the requirements?

  1. Purchase a small tape library and schedule daily full backups.
  2. Purchase a large tape library and schedule daily full backups.
  3. Purchase a small tape library and schedule full backups once a week, and daily incremental backups.
  4. Purchase a large tape library, and schedule monthly full backups, weekly cumulative incrementals, and daily incremental backups.

QUESTION: 112

You have 80 backup clients to backup. You see that 75 of the clients have 100 GB of data to back up or less. Five of the clients have between 250 GB to 500 GB of data to backup. You have 8 hours every night in which to complete all backups. You must design a backup infrastructure that allows all clients to meet backup windows that are approximately one hour each, and minimizes the cost. Additionally:
  • Full backups must be performed once a week on all clients.
  • Library = 10 tape drives, 3000 tape slots.
  • Fast Ethernet throughput = 100 Mb/second
  • Gigabit Ethernet throughput = 400 Mb/second
  • Fibre Channel (SCSI over FC) = 1000 Mb/second
  • Tape hardware: Direct attach Fiber Channel switch, with full fabric login support.
  • Tape Speed = 20 MB/second
    Which connectivity type should you use for 75 small backup clients?

    1. Install Fast Ethernet cards on the small clients to be used solely for backups.
    2. Install gigabit Ethernet cards on the small clients to be used solely for backups.
    3. Install redundant fiber channel host bus adapters on each client. Connect one tape drive directly to each small client for dedicated use by that client.
    4. Install and configure a backup SAN, using a fibre channel switch with enough ports for all small backup clients. Install redundant fiber channel host bus adapters on each client for connectivity to the SAN.

    Answer: A


    QUESTION: 113

    You have 80 backup clients to backup. You see that 75 of the clients have 100 GB of data to back up or less. Five of the clients have between 250 GB to 500 GB of data to backup. You have 8 hours every night in which to complete all backups. You must design a backup infrastructure that allows all clients to meet backup windows that are approximately one hour each and minimizes the cost. Additionally:
  • Full backups must be performed once a week on all clients.
  • Library = 10 tape drives, 3000 tape slots.
  • Fast Ethernet throughput = 100 Mb/second
  • Gigabit Ethernet throughput = 400 Mb/second
  • Fibre Channel (SCSI over FC) = 1000 Mb/second
  • Tape hardware: Direct attach Fiber Channel switch, with full fabric login support.

  • Tape Speed = 20 MB/second
Which is the minimum software needed on each of the 75 small clients?

  1. a backup client license
  2. SAN media server license and a backup client license
  3. Shared Storage Option (SSO) and a backup client license
  4. a media server license and a Shared Storage Option (SSO)

Answer: A


QUESTION: 114

For company XYZ, a monthly full backup spans four DLT tapes and has a retention policy of six months. The monthly backup tape pool starts with 100 DLT tapes. How many tapes will be available for backups after one year?

  1. 6
  2. 24
  3. 76
  4. 100

Answer: C


QUESTION: 115

Company XYZ performs a full backup every Sunday and daily incremental backups Monday through Saturday night. A full backup is 100 GBytes of data and each incremental backup is 10 GBytes. The full backup has a retention policy of one month and the incremental backup has a retention policy of two weeks. How much data is backed up in four weeks?

  1. 160 GBytes
  2. 320 GBytes
  3. 640 GBytes
  4. 1.28 TBytes

Answer: C


SUN 310-152 Exam (Sun Certified Backup and Recovery Engineer (emphasis on Solstice Backup)) Detailed Information

Article by ArticleForge

Certification Watch Volume 7 #16

Written by Anne Martinez 15 October 2004
Certification News regarding Apple exams, retired Sun exams, HP AIS certification, and cSAGE certification.
Apple Max OS X Exam Promotion
Apple is running a special promotion offering a free certification exam. To get the freebie, you must pass any exam in the Apple Certified System Administrator (ACSA), Apple Certified Technical Coordinator (ACTC), or Apple Certified Help Desk Specialist (ACHDS) certification tracks between October 1 and December 31, 2004. This will earn you a free Mac OS X exam in 2005. the Apple Web site for full details.
Sun to Discontinue Exams as of December 15, 2004
Sun Microsystems has announced plans to retire seven of its older certification exams as of December 15, 2004. According to a Sun Microsystems spokesperson, only one of them (Sun Certified Web Component Developer) is slated to be replaced by a newer version covering the same subject. The retiring exams are:
  • Sun Certified Web Component Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition 1.3 (CX-310-080). To be replaced by a newer version, CX-310-081.
  • Sun Certified Developer for Sun ONE Application Server 6.0 (CX-310-540).
  • Sun Certified Data Management Engineer (emphasis on VERITAS Volume Manager (CX-310-101).
  • Sun Certified Data Management Engineer (emphasis on Solstice DiskSuite Software) (CX-310-102).
  • Sun Certified Backup and Recovery Engineer (emphasis on VERITAS NetBackup) (CX-310-151).
  • Sun Certified Backup and Recovery Engineer (emphasis on (CX-">310-152) Solstice Backup).
  • Sun Certified Storage Architect (CX-310-130).
  • Accredited Integration Specialist (AIS) ProLiant + NetWare, Windows, Linux Retired, Replaced by New Credential Hewlett-Packard's AIS ProLiant + NetWare, AIS ProLiant + Windows and AIS ProLiant + Linux certifications have been retired as of October 1, 2004. However, the exams will be available for completion until the 1st Dec 2004 and accepted for certification until 31 Dec 2004. New candidates will be required to complete the new 'HP ProLiant Servers' certification track.
    cSAGE Suspended
    The cSAGE certification program for system administrators has been suspended until further notice. Certification Update will keep you posted on future developments.
    That's all for this edition of Certification Watch. Please keep your certification news and tips coming to the This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
  • Article by ArticleForge

    STATE v. POULTON

    STATE of Kansas, Appellee, v. Jackie R. POULTON, Appellant.
    No. 95,353.     Decided: April 04, 2008 Shawn E. Minihan, of Kansas Appellate Defender Office, argued the cause and was on the briefs for the appellant. Thomas R. Stanton, deputy district attorney, argued the cause, and Keith E. Schroeder, district attorney, and Phill Kline, attorney general, were with him on the brief for the appellee.
    Jackie R. Poulton was convicted of manufacturing methamphetamine, possessing methamphetamine with intent to sell, possessing drug paraphernalia with intent to manufacture, possessing drug paraphernalia with intent to distribute, possessing drug paraphernalia with intent to consume, possessing marijuana, possessing drugs without a tax stamp, and endangering a child.
    Prior to trial, Poulton filed motions to suppress the evidence obtained from two searches of his home, both of which the district court denied.   The Court of Appeals reversed the convictions based on the November 20, 2003, search, finding that the search was illegal, but affirmed the convictions based on the December 27, 2003, search without addressing Poulton's suppression issue that the second search constituted fruit of the poisonous tree.  State v. Poulton, 37 Kan.App.2d 299, 152 P.3d 678 (2007).   We granted Poulton's petition for review, and we now affirm in part and reverse in part the decision of the Court of Appeals.
    The relevant facts as stated by the Court of Appeals, follow:
    “On November 20, 2003, Ed Mora, a special enforcement officer with the Kansas Department of Corrections, was seeking to serve an arrest warrant on Lisa Lamuz for violating her parole.   Mora had been attempting to locate Lamuz for approximately 3 weeks.   Deputy Cory Graber told Mora that Lamuz might be staying at a residence at 6112 North Plum in Hutchinson.   Mora, Graber, and Deputy Jeremy Hedges went to that address to attempt to serve the arrest warrant on Lamuz.
    “Upon arriving at the residence, Graber went to the back of the residence, and Mora and Hedges walked towards the front door.   Poulton came out of the house and met the officers on the porch.   Mora told Poulton who he was.   According to Mora, he asked Poulton if he could speak with him inside, and Poulton responded, ‘[Y]es, come on in.’   Hedges' testimony differed from Mora's in that Hedges never testified that Poulton explicitly consented to them entering the residence.   Rather, Hedges testified that Mora asked if he could speak with Poulton and that Poulton responded yes and opened the door and let them in the house.
    “According to Mora, once they were inside the residence, he asked Poulton if Lamuz was there.   Poulton told Mora that Lamuz was in the back room and that he would go get her.   Mora testified that Poulton walked towards the kitchen area of the residence, but he touched Poulton on the arm to stop him.   Mora told Poulton that he would get Lamuz.   As Mora walked towards the kitchen area, Lamuz walked out of a back room.   Mora told Lamuz who he was and that she was under arrest.   Mora led her into the front room and attempted to place handcuffs on her.   Lamuz told Mora that she was not on parole anymore and that he had made a mistake.   Lamuz indicated that she had paperwork showing that she was no longer on parole.   Lamuz tried to turn away from Mora, but he forcefully grabbed her and placed her in handcuffs.   Approximately five other individuals were in the residence when this incident occurred.
    “As Mora was attempting to handcuff Lamuz, Hedges saw Lamuz raise her hand.   Hedges immediately called Graber into the residence. Graber entered through the back door as two individuals were attempting to leave the residence.   Graber stopped them from leaving. One of the individuals and Poulton went into a back bedroom.   Graber saw several rifles and shotguns lying against the doorway.   Graber yelled to the other officers that he had seen guns.   Graber ordered everyone out of the back bedroom.
    “According to Graber, Poulton said that he needed to get Lamuz' shoes out of the bedroom and that Graber could accompany him in there.   When Graber went into the back bedroom, he saw a handgun lying on the bed.   In addition, Graber saw a test tube containing what appeared to be methamphetamine residue, a razor blade with white powder residue, and an open package of lithium batteries.   Graber relayed this information to Hedges who immediately applied for a search warrant.
    “The officers confined everyone in the house to one area and handcuffed them.   In addition, the officers performed patdown searches for safety reasons.   When Poulton was told about the application for a search warrant, he said that his chest was hurting and that he thought he was having a heart attack.   Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel were called to the residence.
    “Before EMS personnel transported Poulton to the hospital, Graber performed a patdown search.   Poulton was not in handcuffs at the time and was not under arrest.   Graber testified that the patdown was done for EMS safety purposes.   Although Poulton had been in handcuffs earlier, Graber testified that a patdown search had not been performed.   During the patdown search, Graber reached for Poulton's right pocket.   Poulton told Graber that he should not stick his hand in there.   Graber pulled syringes out of Poulton's pocket.
    “A search warrant was obtained for the residence.   During their search, the officers seized baggies of methamphetamine, drug paraphernalia, and items commonly used in manufacturing methamphetamine.
    “On December 27, 2003, Graber and three other officers returned to the residence to serve arrest warrants on four individuals, including Poulton.   During the arrests, the officers saw a handgun on a bed in one of the bedrooms, paraphernalia used for methamphetamine, and small baggies containing a white powder that was consistent with methamphetamine.   The officers obtained a search warrant for the residence.   During their search, the officers seized drug paraphernalia, several baggies of methamphetamine, several baggies of green vegetation, and various items commonly used in manufacturing methamphetamine.
    “From the November 20, 2003, incident, Poulton was charged with eight drug-related crimes.   Poulton moved to suppress the evidence obtained from the November 20, 2003, search and any statements made by him during or resulting from the search.   Poulton argued that the officers never had consent to enter his residence.   Poulton contended that the officers' observations, which formed the basis for the search warrant, were made while they were illegally in his residence.   The trial court held an evidentiary hearing on Poulton's motion to suppress.
    “At the suppression hearing, Poulton testified that he never gave the officers consent to enter his residence.   Rather, Poulton testified that the entire conversation concerning Lamuz happened outside of his residence and that he told the officers he would go inside and get Lamuz.   Poulton testified that he asked the officers if they would wait on his front porch, but the officers told him no.   The officers followed Poulton into his residence.
    “At the conclusion of the hearing, the trial court found that the officers had implied consent to enter Poulton's residence.   The trial court recognized that there were three different versions of what had occurred at Poulton's residence based on the testimonies of Mora, Hedges, and Poulton.   The trial court found that Poulton's testimony that he told the officers to stay outside the residence was not credible.   The trial court found that Mora indicated that he was going to get Lamuz, that Poulton indicated that he would do it, and that they all went in the house together.   The trial court determined that the officers had implied consent to enter Poulton's residence.   The trial court denied Poulton's motion to suppress.
    “In a separate criminal case, Poulton was charged with eight additional drug-related crimes along with the crimes of contributing to a child's misconduct and endangering a child.   All of these charges resulted from the December 27, 2003, incident.   Poulton moved to suppress the evidence obtained from the December 27, 2003, search of his home.   The trial court conducted an evidentiary hearing and denied Poulton's motion to suppress.
    “Upon motion by the State, the trial court later consolidated Poulton's two criminal cases.   Poulton's consolidated case went to a bench trial on stipulated facts.   The trial court found Poulton guilty of two counts of manufacture of methamphetamine in violation of K.S.A. 65-4159;  two counts of possession of methamphetamine in violation of K.S.A. 65-4161;  one count of possession of lithium metal with the intent to manufacture a controlled substance in violation of K.S.A. 65-7006;  one count of possession of anhydrous ammonia or pressurized ammonia with the intent to manufacture a controlled substance in violation of K.S.A. 65-7006;  five counts of felony possession of drug paraphernalia in violation of K.S.A. 65-4152(a);  two counts of possession of methamphetamine without tax stamps affixed in violation of K.S.A. 79-4;  one count of possession of marijuana in violation of K.S.A. 65-4162(a)(3);  and one count of endangering a child in violation of K.S.A. 21-3608.   Poulton was sentenced to a controlling sentence of 30 months in prison.”  37 Kan.App.2d at 301-04, 152 P.3d 678.
    The Court of Appeals found, and at oral argument on review the State conceded, that the initial search conducted on November 20, 2003, was illegal.   See 37 Kan.App.2d at 308, 310, 152 P.3d 678.   We agree and affirm the decision of the Court of Appeals reversing the convictions based on the initial search.   The issue relating to the imposition of the Board of Indigents' Defense Services (BIDS) fees is not before us on review, and the decision of the Court of Appeals reversing and remanding the assessment of the BIDS fees to comply with State v. Robinson, 281 Kan. 538, Syl. ¶ 1, 132 P.3d 934 (2006), must stand since it was not appealed.
    The Court of Appeals affirmed Poulton's convictions based on the December 27, 2003, search.   The Court of Appeals elected not to address Poulton's claim that the evidence seized during the December 27, 2003, search was the fruit of the poisonous tree because Poulton failed to raise the issue in the district court and failed to argue that any exceptional circumstances applied, thereby failing to preserve the issue for appeal.  37 Kan.App.2d at 310-11, 152 P.3d 678.
     Appellate courts can consider new issues on appeal in the following circumstances:  (1) Cases in which the newly asserted theory involves only a question of law arising on proved or admitted facts and that is finally determinative of the case;  (2) cases raising questions for the first time on appeal if consideration of those questions is necessary to serve the ends of justice or to prevent denial of fundamental rights;  and (3) cases upholding the judgment of a trial court even though the trial court may have relied on the wrong ground or assigned a wrong reason for its decision.  State v. Stevens, 278 Kan. 441, 454, 101 P.3d 1190 (2004) (citing State v. Bell, 258 Kan. 123, 126, 899 P.2d 1000 [1995] ).
    At least one of the first two exceptions applies in the present case.   Poulton and the State entered into a written stipulation of facts for the bench trial.   The written stipulation specifically renewed Poulton's objection to the denial of his motions to suppress and preserved the issue of suppression for appeal.   Because there are no factual disputes, the question of whether the evidence stemming from the second search should have been suppressed is a purely legal question.   The first exception may apply if it is determined that the evidence should have been suppressed and the suppression finally disposes of the case.   The second exception applies because the suppression of evidence based on the violation of Poulton's rights under the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution implicates a fundamental right.
     The fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine bars the admission of evidence directly seized during an illegal search as well as evidence obtained indirectly as a result of information learned or leads obtained from the illegal search.   Although not all evidence is fruit of the poisonous tree simply because it would not have become known without the illegal actions of the police, the doctrine bars any evidence that becomes known through exploitation of the illegality.   Evidence that is sufficiently distinguishable so as to be purged of the primary taint is not considered fruit of the poisonous tree.   See Wong Sun v. United States, 371 U.S. 471, 487-88, 83 S.Ct. 407, 9 L.Ed.2d 441 (1963);  State v. Hodges, 252 Kan. 989, 1006, 851 P.2d 352 (1993);  State v. Deffenbaugh, 216 Kan. 593, 598, 533 P.2d 1328 (1975).
     Although the parties stipulated to the facts leading to the convictions, the State did not have the opportunity to analyze the facts in light of the fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine.   The district court found that the initial search was valid, and Poulton did not argue that the second search and arrest constituted fruit of the poisonous tree.   Because the parties have not had a full opportunity to argue this issue in light of the conclusion that the first search was illegal, we decline to find that the doctrine of the fruit of the poisonous tree necessarily applies to the facts of this case.   We instead vacate the convictions based on the December 27, 2003, search and remand the case to the district court for the purpose of conducting a hearing to determine whether the evidence based on that search should be suppressed as fruit of the poisonous tree.   Any appeal taken from that hearing will be docketed as an original appeal in the Court of Appeals.
    Judgment of the Court of Appeals is affirmed in part and reversed in part.   Judgment of the district court is reversed, and the case is remanded with directions to the district court.
    The opinion of the court was delivered by ROSEN, J.:
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    Feedback regulation of cholesterol synthesis: sterol-accelerated ubiquitination and degradation of HMG CoA reductase

    Cell Research (2008) 18:609–621. doi: 10.1038cr.2008.61; published online 27 May 2008
    Top of page Introduction
    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase catalyzes conversion of HMG CoA to mevalonate (Figure 1), the precursor of isoprenoid groups that are incorporated into many end-products including cholesterol, ubiquinone, heme, dolichol, and the farnesyl and geranylgeranyl groups that can become attached to many cellular proteins 1. HMG CoA reductase has been long recognized as the rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of cholesterol and as such is a primary focus of regulation. This is underscored by a multivalent system mediated by sterol and nonsterol isoprenoids that exerts stringent feedback control on reductase through multiple mechanisms 2. The complexity of this regulatory system was first revealed in the late 1970s through the use of compactin, a member of the statin family of drugs that are potent competitive inhibitors of reductase 3, 4. Treatment of cultured cells with compactin blocks production of mevalonate, thereby reducing levels of sterol and nonsterol isoprenoids that normally govern feedback regulation of reductase. Cells respond to the inhibition of reductase by developing a drastic increase in reductase protein (~200-fold), owing to the combined effects of enhanced transcription of the reductase gene, efficient translation of reductase mRNA, and extended half-life of reductase protein. Complete reversal of this compensatory increase in reductase requires regulatory actions of both sterol and nonsterol end-products of mevalonate metabolism 2, 5. Sterols inhibit the activity of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-anchored transcription factors that enhance cholesterol synthesis and uptake by modulating genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes (including reductase) and the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor 6. An unknown nonsterol mevalonate-derived product controls the translational effects through a poorly understood mechanism that may be mediated by the complex 5′-untranslated region of the reductase mRNA 5. Both sterol and nonsterol end-products of mevalonate metabolism combine to accelerate degradation of reductase protein through a mechanism mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway 7, 8, 9. Through these mechanisms, the multivalent regulation of reductase coordinates mevalonate metabolism such that essential nonsterol isoprenoids can be constantly supplied without risking the potentially toxic overproduction of cholesterol or one of its sterol precursors.
    Figure 1.
    Schematic representation of the cholesterol synthetic pathway in animal cells. Reactions that require molecular oxygen are indicated, and specific inhibitors of various enzymes in the pathway are highlighted in red.
    Full figure and legend (120K)
    In all mammalian species that have been studied to date (i.e., human, hamster, rat, and mouse), reductase localizes to membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and consists of 887 or 888 amino acids that can be separated into two contiguous domains (Figure 2A) 10, 11, 12, 13. The N-terminal domain of reductase is comprised of 339 amino acids and is integrated into membranes by virtue of eight membrane-spanning segments that are separated by short loops (Figure 2B) 14. The 548-amino acid C-terminal domain of reductase projects into the cytosol and exerts all of the enzymatic activity 13. The amino acid sequence of the membrane domain of reductase is strikingly conserved among mammalian species 15, 16, which suggested early on that the region may be important for more than just membrane anchorage. Indeed, two key observations have disclosed an important role for the membrane domain of reductase in sterol-accelerated degradation. (1) Expression of the truncated, cytosolic C-terminal domain of reductase produced a stable, catalytically active protein whose degradation was not influenced by sterols 17. (2) A chimeric protein consisting of a fusion between the membrane domain of reductase and soluble β-galactosidase exhibited sterol-accelerated degradation similar to the wild-type full-length reductase 18. These observations led to the hypothesis that the membrane domain of reductase somehow senses levels of membrane-embedded sterols, which triggers reactions that render the enzyme susceptible to proteolytic degradation 17. This degradation occurs from ER membranes and can be blocked by inhibitors of the 26S proteasome, which leads to the accumulation of ubiquitinated forms of reductase 9, 19.
    Figure 2.
    Domain structure of hamster HMG CoA reductase. (A) HMG CoA reductase consists of two distinct domains: a hydrophobic N-terminal domain with eight membrane-spanning segments that anchor the protein to ER membranes, and a hydrophilic C-terminal domain that projects into the cytosol and exhibits all of the enzyme's catalytic activity. (B) Amino acid sequence and topology of the membrane domain of hamster HMG CoA reductase. The lysine residues implicated as sites of Insig-dependent, sterol-regulated ubiquitination are highlighted in red and denoted by arrows. The YIYF sequence in the second membrane-spanning helix that mediates Insig binding is highlighted in yellow.
    Full figure and legend (110K)
    Ubiquitin and proteasomes have been implicated in degradation of reductase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 20. HMG2p, one of two reductase isozymes in yeast, is rapidly degraded when flux through the mevalonate pathway is high. Degradation of the other isozyme, HMG1p, is not regulated. Although the catalytic domains of yeast HMG2p and mammalian reductase show strong similarity (>50% identity over 540 amino acids), the membrane domains bear limited resemblances (<20% identity over 340 amino acids). Considering that the membrane domains of yeast and mammalian reductase are necessary and sufficient for accelerated degradation 18, 21, limited conservation between these regions provides an explanation for the observation that degradation is not triggered by sterols in yeast, but rather by nonsterol isoprenoids 22. Despite these differences, regulated ubiquitination and degradation of reductase is employed by yeast and mammals to modulate flux through the mevalonate pathway. For further insight into the pathway for degradation of HMG2p in yeast, readers are referred to several excellent reviews 20, 22, 23.
    Top of page Insigs, polytopic proteins of the ER that mediate sterol-accelerated degradation of HMG CoA reductase
    Crucial insights into the mechanism for sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase have emerged from comparisons made between reductase and Scap (the SREBP cleavage-activating protein). Similar to reductase, Scap contains two distinct domains: a hydrophobic N-terminal domain that spans the membrane eight times and a hydrophilic C-terminal domain that projects into the cytosol 24. The C-terminal domain of Scap mediates a constitutive association with SREBPs; this interaction is required for Scap-dependent translocation of SREBPs from the ER to Golgi in sterol-deprived cells (Figure 3). Upon arrival in the Golgi, SREBPs encounter a pair of proteases (designated site-1 and site-2 proteases) that act successively to release soluble fragments from the membrane into the cytosol 25, 26, 27, 28, 29. These processed forms of SREBPs then migrate from the cytosol into the nucleus and stimulate target gene expression, which results in increased synthesis and uptake of sterols 6. The subsequent accumulation of sterols in ER membranes prevents proteolytic activation of SREBPs by blocking exit of Scap-SREBP complexes from the ER; transcription of SREBP target genes declines and cholesterol synthesis and uptake are suppressed. Inhibition of ER to Golgi transport of SREBPs results from sterol-induced binding of Scap to ER retention proteins called Insig-1 and Insig-2 30, 31. Insig binding occludes a cytosolic binding site in Scap recognized by COPII proteins, which incorporate cargo molecules into vesicles that deliver ER-derived proteins to the Golgi 32. Scap-Insig binding is mediated by a segment of Scap's membrane domain that includes transmembrane helices 2-6 25, 30. A similar stretch of transmembrane helices is found in at least four other polytopic membrane proteins (including the Niemann Pick C1 protein, Patched, Dispatched, and reductase), all of which have been postulated to interact with sterols. Thus, the region has become known as the sterol-sensing domain 33. The importance of the sterol-sensing domain in regulation of Scap is illustrated by findings that point mutations within the region disrupt Insig binding, thereby relieving mutant Scap-SREBP complexes from sterol-mediated ER retention 30, 31, 34, 35, 36.
    Figure 3.
    Model for sterol-regulated Scap-SREBP pathway. SCAP is a sensor of sterols and an escort of SREBPs. In sterol-depleted cells, Scap facilitates export of SREBPs from the ER to the Golgi apparatus, where two proteases, Site-1 protease (S1P) and Site-2 protease (S2P), act to release the transcriptionally active, N-terminal bHLH-Zip domain of SREBPs from the membrane. The released bHLH-Zip domain migrates into the nucleus and binds to a sterol response element (SRE) in the enhancerpromoter region of target genes, activating their transcription. Accumulation of sterols in ER membranes triggers binding of Scap to one of two retention proteins called Insigs, which blocks incorporation of Scap-SREBP complexes into ER transport vesicles. As a result, SREBPs no longer translocate to the Golgi apparatus, the bHLH-Zip domain cannot be released from the membrane, and transcription of all target genes declines.
    Full figure and legend (81K)
    The recognition of sequence resemblances between the sterol-sensing domains of Scap and reductase stimulated an appraisal of a role for Insigs in degradation of reductase. This effort led to the following observations, which considered together divulge the action of at least one of the Insig proteins in sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase. First, when overexpressed by transfection in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, reductase cannot be degraded when the cells are treated with sterols 37. Co-expression of Insig-1 restores sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase, suggesting the saturation of endogenous Insigs by the overexpressed reductase. Second, reduction of both Insig-1 and Insig-2 by RNA interference (RNAi) abolishes sterol-accelerated degradation of endogenous reductase 38. Third, mutant CHO cells lacking both Insigs are impervious to sterol-stimulated degradation of reductase as well as sterol-mediated inhibition of SREBP processing 39.
    Degradation of reductase coincides with sterol-induced binding of its membrane domain to Insigs 37, an action that requires a tetrapeptide sequence, YIYF, located in the second transmembrane segment of reductase (see Figure 2B) 38. A mutant form of reductase in which the YIYF sequence is mutated to alanine residues no longer binds to Insigs and the enzyme is not subject to rapid degradation. The YIYF sequence is also present in the second transmembrane domain of Scap, where it mediates sterol-dependent formation of Scap-Insig complexes 30, 31. In fact, overexpressing the sterol-sensing domain of Scap in cells blocks Insig-mediated, sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase. Mutation of the YIYF sequence in the Scap sterol-sensing domain ablates this inhibition. This indicates that Scap and reductase bind to the same site on Insigs and the two proteins compete for limiting the amount of Insigs when intracellular sterol levels rise.
    Top of page Insig-mediated ubiquitination of HMG CoA reductase
    Evidence supporting a major role for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase was first provided by the observation that proteasome inhibition blocks the process 19, leading to the accumulation of ubiquitinated forms of reductase on ER membranes 9. This ubiquitination is obligatory for degradation of reductase and exhibits an absolute requirement for the presence of Insigs 38, 39. Reduction of Insig-1 and Insig-2 mRNA by genetic mutation or RNAi-mediated knockdown abrogates sterol-dependent ubiquitination of endogenous reductase, rendering the enzyme refractory to accelerated degradation. Moreover, sterol-induced ubiquitination of reductase exhibits an absolute Insig requirement in transient transfection assays. Mutation of the YIYF sequence in reductase, which blocks Insig binding, prevents regulated ubiquitination and slows the enzyme's degradation. In contrast, conservative substitutions of arginine for lysines 89 and 248 in the membrane domain of reductase (Figure 2B) do not block Insig binding, but the substitutions rather abolish ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of reductase. Thus, lysines 89 and 248 in reductase are implicated as sites for Insig-mediated, sterol-induced ubiquitination. It is important to note that mutation of lysines 89 and 248 blocks ubiquitination and degradation of reductase in the context of the full-length enzyme, suggesting that the catalytic domain does not contribute to ubiquitination. This is consistent with the observation that the soluble catalytic domain is dispensable for sterol-regulated degradation 17.
    How might Insig binding impart recognition of reductase by the ubiquitinating machinery? This question was addressed by examining reductase ubiquitination in a permeabilized cell system 40. Sterol-depleted cells were permeabilized with low concentrations of the mild detergent digitonin such that nearly all of the cytosolic proteins were released into the supernatant upon centrifugation, whereas membrane proteins such as reductase remained associated with the pellet fraction. The pellet of permeabilized cells supports Insig-dependent ubiquitination of reductase that is stimulated by additions of ATP, sterols, and rat liver cytosol in vitro. Surprisingly, reductase ubiquitination is potently stimulated by oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol, including 24-, 25-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol, but not by cholesterol itself. The significance of this finding will be discussed in more detail below.
    Ubiquitination of proteins is a multistep process, involving the action of at least three types of enzymes 41. In the first step, ubiquitin is activated by the ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), which forms a thiol ester between a reactive cysteine residue in E1 and the C-terminus of ubiquitin. Next, ubiquitin is transferred from E1 to a catalytic cysteine of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2). The third type of enzyme, ubiquitin ligase (E3), facilitates transfer of activated ubiquitin from E2 to a lysine residue in the substrate (or a previously attached ubiquitin). Once a poly-ubiquitin chain of sufficient size is built, the substrate is recognized and subsequently degraded by proteasomes. Only two E1 enzymes exist, and both are cytosolic proteins. In contrast, a variety of E2s and E3s, both soluble and membrane-bound, have been described 42. The exquisite sensitivity of substrate ubiquitination is ultimately determined by the E3, either alone or in combination with its cognate E2.
    Fractionated S100 from Hela cells was utilized to determine which component of the reductase ubiquitinating machinery (E1, E2 and E3) is provided by rat liver cytosol in the permeabilized cell system 40. These fractions were first described by Hershko and co-workers 43, 44 and were generated by separating Hela cell S100 into fractions that bind (Fraction II) or do not bind (Fraction I) an anion exchange resin. It was subsequently determined that Fraction I contained ubiquitin, whereas Fraction II contains E1 45. Fraction II effectively replaces rat liver cytosol for regulated ubiquitination of reductase in permeabilized cells, but Fraction I does not. Two observations indicate that Fraction II provides a source of ubiquitin activation in the permeabilized cell system. First, purified E1 replaces rat liver cytosol for sterol-regulated ubiquitination of reductase in permeabilized cells. Second, immunodepletion of E1 eliminates the reductase ubiquitinating activity of rat liver cytosol. These results demonstrate that E1 is the only cytosolic protein required for reductase ubiquitination, which indicates the reductase E2 and E3 are membrane-associated proteins. This notion is consistent with the localization of apparent sites of reductase ubiquitination, lysines 89 and 248, which are cytosolically exposed and are predicted to lie immediately adjacent to transmembrane helices three and seven (Figure 2B).
    Results from the analysis of reductase ubiquitination in permeabilized cells indicated that Insig binding results in recruitment of enzymes that ubiquitinate reductase. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments, coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy, were utilized to identify membrane proteins that associate with the sterol-dependent reductase-Insig complex. These studies revealed that Insig-1 binds to a known membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase called gp78 46. The cDNA for gp78 predicts a 643-amino acid protein that can be divided into four domains. The N-terminal domain of 298 amino acids contains five to seven membrane-spanning helices that anchor the protein to ER membranes and mediate association with Insig-1. The membrane attachment region of gp78 is followed by a 43-amino acid region with a RING finger consensus sequence that confers ubiquitin ligase activity 47. Following the RING domain is a 42-amino acid region homologous to Cue1p, an ER membrane protein in yeast that serves as a membrane anchor for Ubc7p, a cytosolic ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 48. Recently, this region of gp78 has been shown to directly bind to Ufd1, a cytosolic protein that modulates gp78 ubiquitin ligase activity, thereby enhancing ubiquitination and degradation of the enzyme's substrates 49. Finally, the extreme C-terminus of gp78 (48 amino acids) mediates an interaction with VCP (Valosin-containing protein, also known as p97), an ATPase that has been implicated in the post-ubiquitination steps of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) 50.
    At least three lines of evidence indicate that gp78, through its binding to Insig-1, initiates sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase. (1) Overexpression of the membrane domain of gp78 blocks Insig-mediated, sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase, suggesting that the membrane domain of gp78 competes with full-length gp78 for binding to Insig-1, thereby abolishing reductase ubiquitination. (2) Sterols trigger binding of gp78 to reductase in an Insig-dependent, sterol-regulated manner. The specificity of this binding is illustrated by the inability of gp78 to bind Scap, regardless of the presence or absence of sterols andor Insigs. (3) RNAi-mediated knockdown of gp78 prevents sterol-regulated ubiquitination and degradation of endogenous reductase. Importantly, the effect of gp78 knockdown is specific inasmuch as knockdown of a related membrane-bound ubiquitin ligase, Hrd1, does not affect reductase ubiquitination. Another function of gp78, besides its role as a ubiquitin ligase, is to couple ubiquitination of reductase to degradation through its association with VCP. Indeed, coimmunoprecipitation experiments show that gp78 is an intermediary in association of VCP and Insig-1. Moreover, knockdown of VCP by RNAi prevents sterol-accelerated degradation of endogenous reductase and a dominant-negative ATPase-deficient mutant of VCP blocks sterol-regulated degradation of transfected reductase.
    The identification of gp78 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates reductase ubiquitination has important implications for yet another mode of sterol regulation. The regulation of Insig-1 contrasts that of reductase in that Insig-1 becomes ubiquitinated and is rapidly degraded by proteasomes in sterol-depleted cells 51. Ubiquitination of Insig-1 is mediated by gp78 52. When sterols induce reductase to bind Insig-1, ubiquitination is diverted toward reductase and the enzyme becomes rapidly degraded. However, when sterols cause Scap to bind Insig-1, gp78 is displaced and no longer ubiquitinates Insig-1, thereby stabilizing the protein. This reaction helps to explain why reductase is degraded when it binds to Insig-1, whereas Scap binding to Insig-1 leads to retention in the ER. In addition, gp78-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of Insig-1 provide a mechanism for a recently appreciated process termed “convergent feedback inhibition” 51. In sterol-depleted cells, Scap-SREBP complexes no longer bind Insig-1, which in turn becomes ubiquitinated and degraded. Thus, Scap-SREBP complexes are free to exit the ER and translocate to the Golgi, where the SREBPs are processed to the nuclear form that stimulates transcription of target genes, including the Insig-1 gene. reased transcription of the Insig-1 gene leads to increased synthesis of Insig-1 protein, but the protein is ubiquitinated and degraded until sterols build up to levels sufficient to trigger Scap binding. Thus, inhibition of SREBP processing requires convergence of newly synthesized Insig-1 and newly acquired sterols.
    Top of page The HMG CoA reductase sterol-sensing reaction
    Oxysterols are derivatives of cholesterol that contain hydroxyl groups at various positions in the iso-octyl side chain 53, 54. These compounds are synthesized in many tissues by specific enzymes called hydroxylases; oxysterols play key roles in cholesterol export and they are also intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids 55. Oxysterols are significantly more soluble than cholesterol in aqueous solution, and thus can readily pass across the plasma membrane and enter cells. This property renders oxysterols such as 24-, 25-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol extremely potent in inhibiting cholesterol synthesis by stimulating binding of both reductase and Scap to Insigs. Oxysterols are present at very low concentrations (104- to 106-fold less than cholesterol) in tissues and blood, which raises questions as to whether they act through a similar mechanism as LDL-derived cholesterol to block cholesterol synthesis. In the case of Scap, the mode of action of these two classes of sterols is becoming clear. Cholesterol directly binds to the membrane domain of Scap in a specific and saturable fashion 56. The interaction causes a conformational change in Scap that promotes Insig binding 57. The addition of cholesterol in vitro to membranes isolated from sterol-depleted cells causes exposure of a cryptic trypsin cleavage site, thereby altering the tryptic digestion pattern of Scap that can be monitored by immunoblot analysis 58. Co-expression of Insigs lowers the amount of cholesterol required to induce the conformational change in Scap. Oxysterols neither alter Scap's conformation in vitro nor bind to the protein's membrane domain, leading to the postulation of the existence of a membrane-bound oxysterol binding protein. Remarkably, Insig-2 has been recently defined as a membrane-bound oxysterol binding protein with binding specificity that correlates with the ability of oxysterols to inhibit SREBP processing 32, 59. Thus, formation of the Scap-Insig complex can be initiated by either binding of cholesterol to the membrane domain of Scap or by binding of oxysterols to Insigs. Both events prevent incorporation of Scap-SREBP into vesicles that bud from the ER en route to the Golgi. By analogy, the likely mechanism by which oxysterols stimulate degradation of reductase is through their binding to Insigs.
    In striking contrast to results obtained with Scap, the analysis of reductase ubiquitination in permeabilized cells revealed that the reaction was potently stimulated by oxysterols, but not by cholesterol 40. These results led to a search for endogenous sterol regulators of reductase ubiquitination and degradation. Previous indirect studies implicated that lanosterol, the first sterol produced in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway (Figure 1), or one of its metabolites participates in feedback inhibition of reductase. For example, genetic mutation or pharmacologic inhibition of lanosterol 14α-demethylase, which catalyzes the first step in conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol (Figure 1), markedly reduces the amount of reductase activity in cells 60, 61. These observations led to the evaluation of lanosterol and its metabolite 24,25-dihydrolanosterol as endogenous regulators of reductase ubiquitination and degradation 62. When added to intact cells, lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol potently stimulate ubiquitination and degradation of reductase through a reaction that requires the presence of Insigs. The activity of both sterols is specific inasmuch as they do not inhibit processing of SREBPs. This is consistent with the inability of lanosterol to directly bind to Scap and Insig or alter Scap's conformation in vitro 58. The action of lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol is direct and does not require their conversion into an active metabolite as indicated by the reconstitution of reductase ubiquitination by simply incubating isolated membranes with the sterols and purified E1. Using this in vitro assay, the action of lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol in stimulating ubiquitination and degradation of reductase was traced to methyl groups present in the 4α, 4β, and 14α positions of the sterol ring.
    Insig-mediated regulation of reductase is controlled by three classes of sterols: oxysterols, cholesterol, and methylated sterols such as lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol. Oxysterols, which are derived from cholesterol, have dual actions in that they accelerate degradation of reductase and block ER to Golgi transport of Scap-SREBP through their direct binding to Insigs. Cholesterol does not regulate reductase stability directly, but binds to Scap and triggers Insig binding, thereby preventing escape of Scap-SREBP from the ER. On the other hand, lanosterol selectively accelerates degradation of reductase without an effect on ER to Golgi transport of Scap-SREBP. Notably, the demethylation of lanosterol has been implicated as a rate-limiting step in the post-squalene portion of cholesterol synthesis, suggesting the reaction as a potential focal point in sterol regulation 63, 64. Considering that lanosterol is the first sterol produced in cholesterol synthesis, it seems reasonable that it controls early steps in the pathway (i.e., the nonsterol branch) by stimulating reductase degradation. The accumulation of lanosterol is avoided, owing to its inability to block SREBP processing through Scap. This assures that mRNAs encoding enzymes catalyzing reactions subsequent to lanosterol remain elevated and lanosterol is metabolized to cholesterol. The importance of this conversion is highlighted by the observation that lanosterol cannot support cell growth in the absence of cholesterol and may be toxic 65. This toxicity is likely due to the inability to optimize certain physiologic properties of cell membranes with regard to biological functions.
    Top of page Oxygen sensing in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway
    The physiologic relevance of lanosterol as an endogenous regulator of reductase ubiquitination and degradation was deduced by the recognition that cholesterol synthesis is a highly oxygen-consumptive process. The synthesis of one molecule of cholesterol from acetyl-CoA requires eleven molecules of dioxygen, nine of which are consumed during the removal of the 4α, 4β, and 14α methyl groups in lanosterol and its metabolite 24,25-dihydrolanosterol by the successive actions of lanosterol 14α-demethylase and C4-methyl sterol oxidase (Figure 1). This led to speculation that oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) might block demethylation of lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol and thereby stimulate degradation of reductase. Indeed, a recent study shows that hypoxia blunts cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol demethylation, causing both sterols to accumulate in cells 66. Rapid degradation of reductase parallels hypoxia-induced accumulation of lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol. This Insig-mediated degradation requires de novo sterol synthesis as indicated by its inhibition by compactin and the squalene monooxygenase inhibitor NB-598, but not the lanosterol 14α-demethylase inhibitor RS-21607 (see Figure 1). Although hypoxia accelerates degradation of reductase, processing of SREBPs remains unaffected. This finding is consistent with the observation described above that exogenous lanosterol stimulates degradation of reductase without inhibiting SREBP processing.
    In addition to the accumulation of methylated sterols, the degradation of reductase in hypoxic cells also requires the action of the oxygen-sensitive transcription factor, HIF-1α. In oxygenated cells, HIF-1α is rapidly degraded owing to hydroxylation of specific proline residues in the protein 67. Prolyl hydroxylation enhances binding of HIF-1α to the von Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL), which is the recognition component of a ubiquitin ligase that targets HIF-1α for proteasomal degradation. Prolyl hydroxylation of HIF-1α is catalyzed by a family of dioxygenases that use 2-oxoglutarate as a co-substrate and exhibit strict dependence for molecular oxygen 68, 69, 70. When cells are deprived of oxygen, prolyl hydroxylation is inhibited, allowing HIF-1α to escape degradation and accumulate to high levels. The stabilized HIF-1α subunits associate with the constitutive HIF-1β subunit, forming a heterodimeric transcription factor (HIF) that modulates expression of more than 70 genes involved in both systemic and cellular responses to oxygen deprivation 71.
    Evidence implicating a major role for HIF-1α in the hypoxia-induced degradation of reductase is provided by both pharmacologic and genetic data. Treatment of oxygenated cells with dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a non-specific inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, not only stabilizes HIF-1α 72 but also triggers rapid degradation of reductase through an Insig-dependent mechanism that requires de novo sterol synthesis. Genetic evidence for a role of HIF-1α in reductase degradation is provided by the observation that the enzyme is refractory to hypoxia- and DMOG-induced degradation in mutant cells that are deficient in HIF-1α. While these observations establish the importance of the action of HIF-1α in oxygen-regulated degradation of reductase, they raise questions as to the HIF-target genes that mediate the response. In several DNA microarray analyses, Insig-1 and Insig-2 transcripts have been identified among those increased by either DMOG or hypoxia treatment 73, 74, 75. This observation led to the subsequent discovery that DMOG and hypoxia enhance expression of both Insigs through a HIF-dependent mechanism. Considered together, these observations establish a connection between cholesterol synthesis and oxygen sensing in animal cells (Figure 4). These metabolic pathways are linked by two regulatory actions: (1) hypoxia-induced accumulation of the cholesterol biosynthetic intermediates lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol; and (2) HIF-1α mediated induction of Insigs. Convergence of these signals triggers rapid degradation of reductase, which ultimately limits synthesis of cholesterol and helps to guard against the wasting of cellular oxygen in the face of hypoxia.
    Figure 4.
    Mechanism for oxygen sensing in the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The link between synthesis of cholesterol and oxygen sensing in animal cells is provided by hypoxia-induced accumulation of lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol and HIF-1α-mediated induction of Insig-1 and Insig-2. Convergence of these responses leads to rapid degradation of HMG CoA reductase, thereby limiting synthesis of cholesterol.
    Full figure and legend (65K) Top of page Unanswered questions and future directions
    Despite the recent advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase, much remains to be determined. For instance, what is the mechanism by which lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol trigger binding of reductase to Insigs? Do these methylated sterols directly bind the membrane domain of reductase in a reaction analogous to that of cholesterol and Scap? Unfortunately, attempts to demonstrate direct binding of methylated sterols to the membrane domain of reductase have been unsuccessful. Moreover, addition of lanosterol or 24,25-dihydrolanosterol to reductase-containing membranes in vitro fails to alter the tryptic pattern of the enzyme. Thus, the possibility exists that a distinct ER membrane protein binds to methylated sterols and, in turn, triggers binding of reductase to Insigs, thereby initiating reductase ubiquitination. Reductase is the target of statins, which are the most widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs in humans. Interest in developing additional strategies that inhibit reductase has led to the discovery of nonsterol compounds, such as vitamin E (tocotrienols) and the bisphosphonate SR-12813, that mimic sterols in accelerating reductase degradation 76, 77. The availability of such reagents may prove useful in the ongoing quest to define the molecular mechanisms for the reductase sterol-sensing reaction.
    Another unresolved question in reductase degradation is the mechanism for delivery of ubiquitinated forms of the enzyme from the membrane to the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. Unlike model ERAD substrates that are either completely lumenal or contain one transmembrane domain, proteasome inhibition leads to accumulation of ubiquitinated reductase on membranes, rather than in the cytosol 37. This suggests that degradation of reductase is coupled to its ubiquitination and proceeds through a membrane-bound intermediate. However, reductase must be degraded as a unit without releasing the catalytic domain into the cytosol, which would defeat the purpose of regulated degradation.
    Efficient degradation of reductase requires nonsterol isoprenoids derived from mevalonate in addition to sterols. This was borne out of experiments showing that in compactin-treated cells sterols can trigger binding of reductase to Insigs and subsequent ubiquitination of the enzyme. However, the ubiquitinated reductase is not efficiently degraded unless the cells are also treated with mevalonate. This mevalonate requirement can be bypassed by the addition of geranylgeraniol (GG-OH), a 20-carbon isoprenoid, but not by the 15-carbon farnesol 38. GGOH does not appear to trigger reductase ubiquitination, even though it augments sterol-accelerated degradation of the enzyme. This suggests the action of nonsterol isoprenoids in a post-ubiquitination step of reductase degradation.
    The current view of sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase is illustrated in the model shown in Figure 5. The reaction is initiated by sensing of membrane-embedded sterols through direct or indirect interactions with the membrane domain of reductase. This interaction causes reductase to bind to a subset of Insigs that are associated with gp78, which mediates transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 Ubc7 to lysines 89 and 248 of reductase. Ubiquitination targets reductase for recognition by gp78-associated VCP, which, together with its cofactors, somehow extract ubiquitinated reductase from membranes and deliver it to proteasomes for degradation. The extraction step appears to be augmented by GG-OH. It seems likely that GG-OH, after its conversion to metabolically active geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate (GG-PP), is incorporated into a protein that enhances the effect of sterols on reductase degradation. Possible candidates include geranylgeranylated Rab proteins, which are known to play key roles in various aspects of vesicular transport 78. Thus, the possibility exists that a vesicle-mediated transport event delivers ubiquitinated reductase to a specific organelle or subdomain of the ER in which the protein is degraded. Notably, Ufd1 appears to play a key role in this pathway by enhancing gp78 ubiquitin ligase activity and modulating a post-ubiquitination step in reductase degradation. In addition, Ufd1 seems to bind to gp78 in a sterol-regulated fashion 49, but the significance of this is presently unknown. Complete elucidation of reductase degradation will likely require the reconstitution of post-ubiquitination steps of reductase degradation in a cell-free system.
    Figure 5.
    Pathway for sterol-accelerated degradation of HMG CoA reductase. Accumulation of 25-hydroxycholesterol, lanosterol, or 24,25-dihydrolanosterol in ER membranes triggers binding of the reductase to Insigs. A subset of Insigs is associated with the membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase, gp78, which binds the E2 Ubc7 and VCP, an ATPase that plays a role in extraction of ubiquitinated proteins from ER membranes. Through the action of gp78 and Ubc7, reductase becomes ubiquitinated, which triggers its extraction from the membrane by VCP, and subsequent delivery to proteasomes for degradation. The post-ubiquitination step is postulated to be enhanced by geranylgeraniol through an undefined mechanism that may involve a geranylgeranylated protein, such as one of the Rab proteins.
    Full figure and legend (97K)
    What is the contribution of reductase degradation to overall cholesterol homeostasis in whole animals? Insigs appear to play a major role in regulation of reductase in the mouse liver. Genetic deletion of Insigs results in the accumulation of reductase to a level approximately 20-fold higher than that in wild type mice 79. This accumulation is presumably attributable to the combination of both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of reductase, but the extent to which each level of regulation contributed to the massive increase in reductase is unknown. Thus, studies that directly focus on reductase degradation are required in order to determine the contribution of protein stability to overall regulation of reductase in mice in vivo under various physiologic conditions, such as hypoxia.
    The significance of Insig-mediated regulation of reductase in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis is highlighted by the effectiveness of reductase inhibition in lowering plasma LDL-cholesterol in humans 80. However, the inhibition of reductase disrupts normal feedback inhibition of the enzyme, and animals respond by developing a compensatory increase in reductase levels in the liver 81, 82. Remarkably, a similar response has been observed in livers of statin-treated humans as well 83. Knowledge of the mechanisms for this compensatory increase, particularly the contribution of degradation, may facilitate development of novel drugs that improve the effectiveness of statins, or in some cases provide alternative treatments. Such a drug would be modeled after lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol, which selectively stimulate reductase degradation without affecting the Scap-SREBP pathway or LDL-receptor activity. In addition, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms for sterol-accelerated, ERAD of reductase may have implications for degradation of other clinically important proteins such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Thus, further excitement will undoubtedly ensue once questions posed in this review begin to become clear.
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  • Top of page Acknowledgements
    Work in the DeBose-Boyd laboratory is supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (HL20948), the Perot Family Foundation, the American Heart Association (0540128N), and the W.M. Keck Foundation.
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  • Article by ArticleForge

    Resale Sales Oct. 29-Nov. 5

    Editor’s note: Listings include the resale home’s parcel number. Occasionally, the address listed is the homebuyer’s mailing address and not the actual location of the home. Check the parcel number to make sure. Also, a few transactions do not reflect the market value of the homes.
    HENDERSON
    89002
    1093 Paradise Coach Drive, $145,000,
    179-34-711-033
    1101 Plumstead St., $255,000,
    179-31-315-025
    1116 San Gabriel Ave., $499,900,
    179-33-710-077
    1117 Dunrobin Garden St., $180,000,
    179-19-511-024
    1149 Midori St., $363,000, 179-31-813-004
    117 Grandview Drive, $130,000,
    179-08-610-054
    120 Sttingham Park Ave., $264,000,
    179-31-317-055
    1661 Arabian Drive, $75,000,
    139-20-811-039
    171 Redwood Pond Drive, $200,000,
    179-31-710-034
    410 Golden Spears Place, $450,000,
    140-35-501-015
    441 Chateau Drive, $165,500,
    179-29-612-033
    605 Jade Circle, $133,000, 179-29-110-003
    721 Nerka Drive, $309,000, 179-28-812-088
    826 Butch Cassidy Lane, $165,000,
    179-28-312-001
    943 Spiracle Ave., $245,487,
    179-28-812-065
    982 Klamath River Ave., $179,900,
    179-28-213-030
    89011
    173 Bear Cove Terrace, $295,974,
    160-31-610-010
    18 Pyrenees Court, $905,000,
    160-23-810-032
    180 Leaf Tree Ave., $287,340,
    160-31-511-017
    29 Montelago Blvd., No. 311, $79,000, 160-22-317-045
    500 Punto Vallata Drive, $464,787,
    160-32-211-016
    653 Livery Court, $166,000,
    161-35-812-027
    7090 Shimmering Ave., $162,000,
    178-10-613-007
    750 Forest Peak St., $228,724,
    178-03-511-007
    969 Cedar Pines St., $175,000,
    161-35-712-065
    89012
    1092 Bootspur Drive, $184,000,
    178-15-813-007
    1295 Pale Vista Court, $370,000,
    178-22-313-013
    1392 Enchanted River Drive, $1,314,223, 178-27-117-002
    1403 Foothills Village Drive, $107,000, 178-16-113-086
    1507 Arroyo Verde Drive, $475,000,
    178-21-620-007
    151 Lemongold St., $250,000,
    178-24-212-018
    1556 Harwood Ave., $345,000,
    178-21-512-023
    1809 Country Meadows Drive, $445,000, 178-20-814-067
    1952 Larkspur Ranch Court, $362,000,
    178-20-715-011
    216 Sunlight Peak St., $203,000,
    178-21-711-043
    220 Opera House St., $297,900,
    178-22-314-010
    228 Palmetto Pointe Drive, $355,000,
    178-22-612-022
    231 W. Horizon Ridge Parkway, No. 1018, $108,000, 178-24-811-132
    27 Trailside Court, $213,000,
    178-07-213-015
    315 Dazzling Terrace, $325,000,
    178-20-412-040
    339 Pleasant Summit Drive, $457,500,
    178-20-814-046
    643 Pacific Cascades Drive, $290,000,
    178-23-515-028
    1278 Dove Tree Court, $235,000,
    177-12-810-013
    1278 Dove Tree Court, $352,100,
    178-10-217-032
    1279 Shimmering Glen Ave., $433,000, 178-30-111-088
    1690 Normandy Way, No. 824, $70,000, 178-09-116-046
    1691 Keepsake Ave., $87,000,
    178-01-210-066
    2251 Fawn Circle, $163,000,
    178-07-510-072
    2317 Richard Drive, $240,000,
    178-05-710-016
    2337 Lone Pine St., $220,000,
    178-06-810-032
    2364 Pickwick Drive, $135,000,
    178-05-217-004
    2416 La Luna Drive, $179,000,
    178-06-611-009
    2417 Vista Colina St., $149,250,
    178-06-615-019
    307 Laguna Glen Drive, $200,000,
    178-09-614-069
    89015
    119 Ivy St., $88,000, 179-08-411-001
    152 Spinnaker Drive, $164,900,
    179-09-414-024
    212 Minor Ave., $143,000, 179-17-411-081
    212 Pretty Sunset Terrace, $200,000,
    179-09-316-022
    24 Laswell St., $154,900, 179-18-110-007
    261 Melody Vista Place, $156,000,
    179-17-117-015
    350 Citrus Circle, $124,000, 179-20-514-014
    405 Breeze Way, $175,000, 178-24-616-033
    419 Rocky Road, $150,000, 178-24-516-017
    For a complete listing, visit .reviewjournalm. Click on the Recent Stories tab on the right corner. Look for Saturday’s date and click on Real Estate. Figures are provided by AccuData, a local research firm.
    52 aldrin cir., $110,000, 179-17-112-009
    540 landra ln., $189,900, 179-20-711-054
    572 estancia ct., $250,000, 179-21-514-015
    67 e atlantic ave., $38,214, 179-18-611-126
    91 constitution ave., $107,000, 179-08-411-159
    928 ashford way., $193,500, 179-16-112-043
    2161 hanston ct henderson nv 89044 $262,000, 190-18-617-052
    2349 apparition st henderson nv 89044 $402,450, 176-27-611-069
    2349 celestial moon st henderson nv 89044 $195,000, 190-18-410-054
    2356 martinique ave henderson nv 89044 $795,000, 190-19-810-003
    2373 orangeburg pl henderson nv 89044 $292,000, 190-17-411-093
    2414 blairlogie ct henderson nv 89044 $252,000, 191-24-113-062
    2522 finlarig st henderson nv 89044 $455,000, 191-24-711-023
    2525 lochmaben st henderson nv 89044 $204,000, 178-14-814-045
    2567 dirleton pl henderson nv 89044 $320,000, 190-19-310-038
    2629 courgette way henderson nv 89044 $258,000, 190-19-612-054
    2716 solar flare ln henderson nv 89044 $195,000, 191-24-514-047
    2766 mintlaw ave henderson nv 89044 $258,000, 191-24-713-082
    1005 mocha mattari st henderson nv 89052 $187,000, 177-36-617-031
    1302 rossini st henderson nv 89052 $345,000, 190-05-210-009
    1895 williamsport st henderson nv 89052 $360,000, 190-07-414-011
    2164 big bar dr henderson nv 89052 $246,900, 177-25-310-009
    2263 smokey sky henderson nv 89052 $240,000, 178-19-414-005
    2264 lyrical rd henderson nv 89052 $515,000, 190-06-612-112
    2348 teton ranch ave henderson nv 89052 $277,500, 178-30-212-002
    2401 stansbury ct henderson nv 89052 $156,450, 176-25-810-032
    2455 silver swan ct henderson nv 89052 $350,000, 178-31-221-053
    2484 walsh glen ct henderson nv 89052 $400,000, 178-31-412-020
    251 cleargirl ct henderson nv 89052 $231,290, 178-19-314-077
    2555 hampton rd #6208 henderson nv 89052 $264,900, 190-18-117-104
    2555 hitchcock st henderson nv 89052 $249,000, 178-31-123-041
    2711 port lewis ave henderson nv 89052 $254,200, 177-36-615-016
    2817 maryland hills dr henderson nv 89052 $550,000, 177-36-317-025
    2831 st rose pkwy #100 henderson nv 89052 $180,000, 162-16-810-245
    3028 via venezia henderson nv 89052 $385,000, 177-35-820-030
    3033 via meridiana henderson nv 89052 $357,000, 177-35-820-031
    3092 quail crest ave henderson nv 89052 $225,000, 177-35-711-011
    328 quiet harbor dr henderson nv 89052 $452,500, 178-30-111-005
    493 calendula ct henderson nv 89052 $416,000, 178-30-114-015
    521 fox horn rd henderson nv 89052 $185,000, 124-35-414-003
    677 pansy pl henderson nv 89052 $207,000, 178-29-612-071
    837 fulfort ct henderson nv 89052 $202,450, 137-26-717-051
    950 seven hills dr #2523 henderson nv 89052 $425,000, 178-18-419-033
    1092 broomfield dr henderson nv 89074 $285,000, 178-10-314-022
    141 cologne ct henderson nv 89074 $185,000, 177-13-212-033
    1431 clipperton ave henderson nv 89074 $315,000, 178-09-711-017
    1731 millstream way henderson nv 89074 $250,000, 178-09-414-055
    2127 tyler dr henderson nv 89074 $387,000, 178-17-420-003
    2422 legacy island cir henderson nv 89074 $530,000, 163-12-403-009
    2450 avenida cortes henderson nv 89074 $165,000, 178-19-110-065
    2605 glen green ave henderson nv 89074 $162,000, 177-13-313-034
    27 rue de degas henderson nv 89074 $204,250, 178-19-110-058
    287 kershner ct henderson nv 89074 $250,000, 178-08-711-023
    2881 skowhegan dr henderson nv 89074 $299,169, 164-25-713-090
    320 bradford dr henderson nv 89074 $217,000, 178-07-613-006
    346 clayton st henderson nv 89074 $197,000, 178-07-212-013
    66 dow jones st #1 henderson nv 89074 $135,000, 178-15-312-007
    75 n valle verde dr #912 henderson nv 89074 $120,500, 178-17-719-056
    NORTH LAS VEGAS
    3022 harewood cir north las vegas nv 89030 $60,000, 139-13-116-010
    3300 emmons ave north las vegas nv 89030 $70,000, 139-24-710-071
    919 carey grove ave north las vegas nv 89030 $157,000, 139-16-815-050
    1032 nawkee dr north las vegas nv 89031 $205,500, 124-28-718-004
    1065 appleblossom time ave north las vegas nv 89031 $120,500, 124-33-719-016
    112 melon aroma ave north las vegas nv 89031 $160,000, 124-34-711-010
    1234 pagentry dr north las vegas nv 89031 $164,000, 124-33-713-030
    1621 paradise reef ave north las vegas nv 89031 $142,900, 139-02-112-008
    1702 council bluff ln north las vegas nv 89031 $143,000, 124-28-214-018
    1825 casa verde dr north las vegas nv 89031 $152,000, 124-33-313-031
    1934 la villa dr north las vegas nv 89031 $141,500, 124-33-412-046
    2117 silver clouds dr north las vegas nv 89031 $250,000, 124-29-713-056
    2201 spanish town ave north las vegas nv 89031 $131,000, 139-05-615-001
    2423 old town dr north las vegas nv 89031 $150,000, 139-05-510-016
    2715 coral cliffs ct north las vegas nv 89031 $130,000, 124-29-614-048
    2923 sunrise bay ave north las vegas nv 89031 $119,000, 124-29-410-070
    2924 sunrise bay ave north las vegas nv 89031 $123,000, 124-29-410-022
    3105 extravagant ave north las vegas nv 89031 $199,000, 124-29-210-011
    3 sunrise rose ave north las vegas nv 89031 $215,000, 124-29-415-069
    3725 saint phillip ct north las vegas nv 89031 $202,000, 125-16-716-021
    3734 saint philip ct north las vegas nv 89031 $100,000, 125-18-614-059
    4034 annendale ave north las vegas nv 89031 $164,500, 124-31-515-030
    snow dome ave north las vegas nv 89031 $148,000, 124-27-710-030
    4123 farmdale ave north las vegas nv 89031 $165,000, 124-31-514-018
    4613 sergeant ct north las vegas nv 89031 $175,000, 139-03-512-003
    4737 vista del rey ct north las vegas nv 89031 $185,000, 139-03-510-009
    5330 daywood st north las vegas nv 89031 $150,000, 124-34-611-103
    5343 reardon ct north las vegas nv 89031 $160,000, 124-31-220-010
    5416 flying arrow pl north las vegas nv 89031 $147,500, 124-32-112-012
    5616 granville lake st north las vegas nv 89031 $265,000, 124-30-812-017
    5820 willis st north las vegas nv 89031 $188,500, 124-30-710-007
    5917 sea hunter st north las vegas nv 89031 $270,000, 124-30-315-124
    5928 puka shell st north las vegas nv 89031 $140,000, 124-29-710-073
    6031 red glitter st north las vegas nv 89031 $185,000, 124-29-213-037
    6121 river belle st north las vegas nv 89031 $299,900, 124-30-210-086
    6333 bunch grass ct north las vegas nv 89031 $265,000, 124-28-517-058
    1125 indian hedge dr north las vegas nv 89032 $173,000, 139-09-614-010
    140 unity crest ave north las vegas nv 89032 $145,000, 139-03-811-079
    1713 ronzard ave north las vegas nv 89032 $170,000, 139-09-417-010
    2708 w san miguel ave north las vegas nv 89032 $235,000, 139-05-714-008
    3012 w logan ave north las vegas nv 89032 $186,650, 139-08-219-003
    3322 shonna way north las vegas nv 89032 $147,000, 139-09-411-008
    3330 wild filly ln north las vegas nv 89032 $157,000, 139-07-414-043
    3813 blairmoor st north las vegas nv 89032 $155,000, 139-08-513-011
    3869 ankara walk dr north las vegas nv 89032 $165,000, 139-07-514-039
    1517 saxophone ln north las vegas nv 89081 $278,761, 124-35-715-003
    2012 turtle beach ave north las vegas nv 89081 $158,000, 124-26-711-046
    3136 mclennan ave north las vegas nv 89081 $170,000, 124-25-613-029
    3413 barada heights ave north las vegas nv 89081 $167,000, 124-25-615-076
    3504 colby creek ave north las vegas nv 89081 $185,000, 123-31-212-016
    3637 terneza ave north las vegas nv 89081 $160,000, 123-30-215-039
    3760 hollycroft dr north las vegas nv 89081 $160,000, 123-30-212-099
    3840 van ness ave north las vegas nv 89081 $210,000, 123-31-114-085
    3905 red trumpet ct north las vegas nv 89081 $165,000, 123-31-511-015
    5612 clotidle soupert ct north las vegas nv 89081 $201,000, 124-22-813-036
    5808 sagamore canyon st north las vegas nv 89081 $235,000, 123-30-313-062
    5821 black sand beach st north las vegas nv 89081 $182,000, 124-26-711-051
    6064 camden cove st north las vegas nv 89081 $176,000, 124-25-212-027
    6329 beige bluff st #101 north las vegas nv 89081 $100,000, 123-30-510-092
    805 seneca heights ave north las vegas nv 89081 $174,900, 124-35-215-040
    1823 diamond bluff ave north las vegas nv 89084 $237,000, 124-28-115-019
    3037 dowitcher ave north las vegas nv 89084 $195,000, 124-20-211-047
    3908 elderdown pl north las vegas nv 89084 $170,000, 124-19-713-030
    6436 ruddock dr north las vegas nv 89084 $254,900, 124-19-810-002
    6504 boatbill st north las vegas nv 89084 $228,000, 124-20-410-049
    6608 lavender lilly ln #2 north las vegas nv 89084 $132,500, 124-20-311-095
    6608 night owl bluff ave north las vegas nv 89084 $216,500, 124-21-310-010
    6636 evening grosbeak pl north las vegas nv 89084 $207,000, 124-19-715-079
    6704 sea swallow st north las vegas nv 89084 $249,900, 124-20-711-141
    6944 caspian tern st north las vegas nv 89084 $201,900, 124-19-213-025
    6945 diver ave north las vegas nv 89084 $179,000, 124-20-211-033
    3913 helens pouroff ave north las vegas nv 89085 $201,000, 124-07-814-064
    1008 e rome blvd north las vegas nv 89086 $208,000, 124-23-312-032
    1409 peyton stewart ct north las vegas nv 89086 $285,000, 124-23-712-005
    2632 lazy leopard ct north las vegas nv 89086 $165,000, 124-24-310-041
    2845 swanson ave north las vegas nv 89086 $145,000, 124-24-412-059
    1009 palmer st las vegas nv 89101 $83,535, 139-25-612-037
    136 cervantes st las vegas nv 89101 $85,000, 139-35-715-017
    150 n las vegas blvd #1903 las vegas nv 89101 $394,000, 139-34-613-178
    2204 wendell ave las vegas nv 89101 $103,000, 139-26-712-089
    2600 constantine ave las vegas nv 89101 $135,000, 139-25-">310-152
    2113 fontenelle st las vegas nv 89102 $49,000, 138-24-217-008
    2300 w sahara ave #420 las vegas nv 89102 $45,000, 140-04-210-003
    2412 mason ave las vegas nv 89102 $278,000, 139-32-410-008
    3913 el parque ave las vegas nv 89102 $144,000, 162-06-711-095
    3993 spring mountain rd #377 las vegas nv 89102 $63,000, 163-24-710-025
    3993 spring mountain rd #377 las vegas nv 89102 $77,150, 163-24-710-062
    4621 cinderella ln las vegas nv 89102 $142,000, 162-07-210-039
    3594 moraga dr las vegas nv 89103 $68,000, 138-27-419-322
    3661 bronco rd las vegas nv 89103 $76,000, 163-24-612-886
    4335 thorndale pl las vegas nv 89103 $224,900, 163-23-213-025
    4383 thorndale pl las vegas nv 89103 $185,500, 163-23-213-020
    4471 dean martin dr #2105 las vegas nv 89103 $132,040, 124-17-615-205
    5155 w tropicana ave #2146 las vegas nv 89103 $110,000, 163-25-510-158
    5160 indian river dr #335 las vegas nv 89103 $67,200, 163-24-612-335
    5415 w harmon ave #1039 las vegas nv 89103 $102,500, 138-25-313-047
    5416 winston dr las vegas nv 89103 $229,900, 163-13-710-013
    6318 humus ave las vegas nv 89103 $145,000, 176-11-510-115
    6349 explorer dr las vegas nv 89103 $205,000, 163-23-712-140
    1207 s 15th st las vegas nv 89104 $140,000, 162-02-115-032
    1434 lucky st las vegas nv 89104 $136,000, 161-05-112-041
    1504 wesley st las vegas nv 89104 $155,000, 161-05-210-025
    1800 hassett ave las vegas nv 89104 $122,500, 162-02-712-065
    1916 s 6th st las vegas nv 89104 $179,000, 162-03-315-037
    1917 bonita st las vegas nv 89104 $83,000, 162-02-616-012
    4820 e baltimore ave las vegas nv 89104 $180,000, 161-05-810-055
    801 griffith ave las vegas nv 89104 $139,900, 162-03-615-001
    1321 w adams ave las vegas nv 89106 $115,000, 139-28-613-001
    1716 robin st las vegas nv 89106 $138,000, 139-20-810-021
    1844 tourmaline blue st las vegas nv 89106 $108,000, 139-20-420-056
    1908 robin st las vegas nv 89106 $110,000, 139-20-810-012
    2252 la mark ave las vegas nv 89106 $115,000, 139-29-511-029
    2305 holly ave las vegas nv 89106 $110,000, 139-20-711-021
    335 arnold st las vegas nv 89106 $115,000, 139-33-210-045
    600 s tonopah #300 las vegas nv 89106 $359,000, 178-21-810-028
    106 narcissus ln las vegas nv 89107 $132,500, 139-29-812-026
    201 falcon ln las vegas nv 89107 $135,000, 138-36-120-035
    3025 palomino ln las vegas nv 89107 $146,000, 162-05-114-013
    3105 sonia dr las vegas nv 89107 $625,000, 139-32-211-009
    4108 fortune dr las vegas nv 89107 $152,000, 139-30-711-130
    4313 handford ave las vegas nv 89107 $113,000, 139-19-111-108
    4321 w bonanza rd las vegas nv 89107 $133,000, 139-30-410-010
    444 wonderstone dr las vegas nv 89107 $156,500, 138-36-611-073
    4601 baxter pl las vegas nv 89107 $145,000, 139-31-410-097
    516 n wallace dr las vegas nv 89107 $220,000, 138-26-712-037
    5700 heron ave las vegas nv 89107 $215,000, 162-06-214-012
    5715 heron ave las vegas nv 89107 $116,300, 138-36-315-022
    5820 lydia dr las vegas nv 89107 $110,000, 138-36-116-015
    5913 granada ave las vegas nv 89107 $158,000, 138-25-314-010
    6209 hargrove ave las vegas nv 89107 $135,000, 138-35-512-008
    6225 hobart ave las vegas nv 89107 $139,000, 138-26-812-003
    6300 garwood ave las vegas nv 89107 $115,000, 138-35-511-063
    6609 bourbon way las vegas nv 89107 $269,900, 138-07-718-002
    701 pioneer st las vegas nv 89107 $148,000, 139-30-716-016
    721 chabot dr las vegas nv 89107 $248,000, 139-30-711-025
    777 n rainbow blvd #120 las vegas nv 89107 $545,000, 176-11-710-003
    813 stark dr las vegas nv 89107 $48,000, 139-17-712-053
    1004 saylor way las vegas nv 89108 $130,000, 138-25-214-005
    2109 willowbury dr ut c las vegas nv 89108 $74,000, 138-23-212-059
    2433 sweetgum st las vegas nv 89108 $150,000, 138-14-413-077
    3024 gentle breeze st las vegas nv 89108 $180,000, 138-14-110-094
    3404 san juan dr las vegas nv 89108 $119,900, 139-30-514-060
    4300 beth ave las vegas nv 89108 $147,000, 139-19-215-070
    4401 caribou way las vegas nv 89108 $187,000, 138-02-212-026
    4424 midway ln las vegas nv 89108 $130,000, 138-02-211-032
    5809 rae dr las vegas nv 89108 $134,900, 138-25-211-023
    6012 vegas dr las vegas nv 89108 $75,000, 138-24-418-001
    6304 mint frost way las vegas nv 89108 $160,000, 138-26-512-004
    6332 lorille ln las vegas nv 89108 $165,000, 138-20-511-007
    6524 moon roses ct las vegas nv 89108 $83,000, 138-25-812-015
    6561 gazelle dr las vegas nv 89108 $159,900, 138-23-315-003
    6600 coastal breeze ct las vegas nv 89108 $149,000, 138-14-110-001
    917 shelton dr las vegas nv 89108 $189,900, 138-26-618-047
    210 e flamingo rd #208 las vegas nv 89109 $132,000, 162-16-810-068
    222 karen ave # las vegas nv 89109 $380,000, 162-10-114-342
    2852 loveland dr #1807 las vegas nv 89109 $50,000, 162-16-810-061
    1251 bledso ln las vegas nv 89110 $72,500, 161-17-413-032
    129 romero dr las vegas nv 89110 $55,931.97 140-32-311-058
    1363 betty ln las vegas nv 89110 $240,000, 140-28-210-048
    1580 desertaire way las vegas nv 89110 $99,900, 140-07-311-036
    4228 caliper dr las vegas nv 89110 $108,000, 140-30-812-019
    4444 berkley ave las vegas nv 89110 $37,000, 140-31-816-048
    4617 toadstool ln las vegas nv 89110 $122,500, 140-29-414-048
    500 red bandana st las vegas nv 89110 $112,703, 140-31-512-022
    513 hall of fame dr las vegas nv 89110 $140,570, 140-33-618-020
    528 stanley cup dr las vegas nv 89110 $100,000, 140-30-215-003
    5641 gorham ave las vegas nv 89110 $95,000, 140-33-611-074
    5657 coaldale pl las vegas nv 89110 $189,995, 140-33-611-056
    58 moon chase st las vegas nv 89110 $410,000, 140-34-212-014
    5831 goodsprings ct las vegas nv 89110 $139,900, 140-33-614-024
    6074 adobe summit ave las vegas nv 89110 $199,000, 140-27-213-078
    6134 kadena cir las vegas nv 89110 $165,000, 140-27-415-050
    6670 e owens ave las vegas nv 89110 $331,500, 140-22-803-005
    7061 montana ave las vegas nv 89110 $230,000, 161-15-410-039
    732 summer heights ln las vegas nv 89110 $143,000, 140-33-514-051
    806 sun shimmer pl las vegas nv 89110 $248,000, 140-27-816-025
    5165 turnberry ln las vegas nv 89113 $275,000, 163-27-210-005
    7189 s durango dr #311 las vegas nv 89113 $90,000, 176-05-810-208
    7565 frontier ranch ln las vegas nv 89113 $225,000, 163-34-110-066
    7923 trail head dr las vegas nv 89113 $269,000, 163-33-610-030
    8070 w russell rd #1047 las vegas nv 89113 $93,000, 163-28-811-070
    8208 dutch harbor cir las vegas nv 89113 $545,000, 176-16-111-001
    2308 colebrook st las vegas nv 89115 $46,000, 140-20-111-153
    2354 sandy ln las vegas nv 89115 $125,000, 140-21-210-001
    3329 queen st las vegas nv 89115 $109,500, 140-07-410-022
    3610 saint bar ct las vegas nv 89115 $75,000, 140-07-311-056
    3821 soda springs dr las vegas nv 89115 $33,700, 140-18-215-010
    3974 lancome st las vegas nv 89115 $90,000, 140-08-110-073
    6150 belmont shores st north las vegas nv 89115 $130,000, 123-29-210-230
    2000 jasper bluff st #207 las vegas nv 89117 $120,000, 163-06-320-053
    3120 mediterranean dr las vegas nv 89117 $199,900, 163-08-717-051
    3205 shallow point cir las vegas nv 89117 $182,900, 163-07-810-011
    3265 s tioga way las vegas nv 89117 $600,000, 163-10-405-006
    3320 s fort apache rd #1134 las vegas nv 89117 $100,000, 163-17-116-059
    7155 coley ave las vegas nv 89117 $425,000, 163-10-705-003
    8057 lands end ave las vegas nv 89117 $150,000, 162-24-310-060
    8101 meantmore ave las vegas nv 89117 $505,000, 164-12-415-014
    8222 stoneheather ct las vegas nv 89117 $275,000, 163-09-212-039
    8509 hearst ct las vegas nv 89117 $135,000, 138-33-111-018
    8600 w charleston blvd #1020 las vegas nv 89117 $72,500, 138-32-819-036
    8709 maritime dr las vegas nv 89117 $177,000, 163-08-819-014
    8944 clairton ct las vegas nv 89117 $315,000, 125-27-612-003
    9020 cape wood ct las vegas nv 89117 $264,500, 163-08-312-047
    9220 vosburgh dr las vegas nv 89117 $168,000, 138-08-613-009
    9400 alameda harbor ave las vegas nv 89117 $234,000, 163-07-811-010
    6198 island palm ave las vegas nv 89118 $460,000, 163-26-815-001
    1065 e flamingo rd #815 las vegas nv 89119 $80,000, 162-27-711-007
    1156 placerville st las vegas nv 89119 $115,000, 177-03-813-027
    1469 santa anita dr las vegas nv 89119 $240,000, 124-22-510-037
    1545 white dr las vegas nv 89119 $230,000, 177-02-413-007
    1730 jupiter ct #a las vegas nv 89119 $170,000, 178-10-415-031
    1847 misty glade dr las vegas nv 89119 $176,000, 177-02-810-045
    1865 hallwood dr las vegas nv 89119 $158,000, 162-24-710-028
    1980 sunnyslope ave las vegas nv 89119 $143,000, 162-26-710-172
    5438 clydesdale st las vegas nv 89119 $143,000, 162-26-710-283
    7010 encore way las vegas nv 89119 $157,000, 177-02-310-024
    7099 rusty nail way las vegas nv 89119 $227,000, 177-02-319-019
    934 lady marlene ave las vegas nv 89119 $133,500, 162-27-715-043
    2881 vista del sol ave las vegas nv 89120 $185,222, 161-20-110-001
    3745 braewood south ave las vegas nv 89120 $138,000, 161-30-313-038
    3885 e reno ave las vegas nv 89120 $152,000, 161-30-610-008
    4002 lucas ave las vegas nv 89120 $145,000, 161-30-714-038
    4840 elaina ave las vegas nv 89120 $115,000, 161-29-712-081
    5020 mesaview dr las vegas nv 89120 $175,000, 161-30-117-025
    5194 brentmead dr las vegas nv 89120 $175,000, 161-30-612-103
    5384 hillsboro ln las vegas nv 89120 $125,000, 161-29-712-010
    5481 shodall cir las vegas nv 89120 $180,000, 161-30-316-011
    5618 s mojave rd las vegas nv 89120 $192,000, 162-25-813-014
    5880 s pearl st las vegas nv 89120 $306,000, 161-31-105-016
    2444 domingo st las vegas nv 89121 $100,000, 162-13-310-033
    2470 e flamingo rd #c las vegas nv 89121 $222,000, 138-29-312-012
    2632 topaz sq las vegas nv 89121 $43,000, 162-11-511-045
    2725 s nellis blvd #2079 las vegas nv 89121 $32,500, 162-23-210-002
    2791 mcleod dr las vegas nv 89121 $160,000, 162-12-214-045
    3542 rio mayo dr las vegas nv 89121 $115,000, 161-17-614-033
    3691 mckinley ave las vegas nv 89121 $120,000, 161-18-311-033
    3925 chinchilla ave las vegas nv 89121 $149,900, 161-19-712-027
    3941 placita ave las vegas nv 89121 $124,000, 161-07-610-061
    3988 el segundo ave las vegas nv 89121 $115,000, 161-07-610-014
    3990 e twain ave las vegas nv 89121 $140,000, 161-18-616-055
    4630 dennis way las vegas nv 89121 $154,900, 161-20-712-050
    4632 bountiful way las vegas nv 89121 $120,500, 162-24-712-005
    4778 fuentes way las vegas nv 89121 $50,000, 161-17-511-022
    3234 chimayo ln las vegas nv 89122 $75,000, 161-09-810-213
    4057 whispering quail ct las vegas nv 89122 $214,900, 161-15-815-005
    4719 madrigal way las vegas nv 89122 $139,900, 161-22-411-021
    5070 blanton dr las vegas nv 89122 $135,000, 161-21-411-091
    5118 northridge cir las vegas nv 89122 $90,000, 161-28-610-034
    5240 petal ave las vegas nv 89122 $80,000, 161-21-112-047
    5655 bolton valley dr las vegas nv 89122 $149,000, 161-21-712-017
    5678 sentry palm ct las vegas nv 89122 $380,000, 178-20-212-060
    5705 mahogany run pl las vegas nv 89122 $138,000, 161-16-511-049
    5870 medallion dr #101 las vegas nv 89122 $61,000, 161-27-313-136
    6156 wheat penny ave las vegas nv 89122 $105,000, 138-03-819-039
    6402 azurelyn ave las vegas nv 89122 $178,000, 161-27-514-113
    6 buck jones ave #102 las vegas nv 89122 $118,000, 161-10-710-062
    6613 diamond care dr las vegas nv 89122 $118,000, 161-26-211-085
    6836 mahogany meadows ave las vegas nv 89122 $158,000, 161-26-310-021
    6877 gold nugget dr las vegas nv 89122 $150,000, 161-26-310-047
    1438 silver rain ave las vegas nv 89123 $275,000, 177-23-410-128
    1675 pecan orchard ln las vegas nv 89123 $245,000, 177-14-112-025
    2220 buffalo run ave las vegas nv 89123 $188,000, 177-11-611-113
    331 barletta ave las vegas nv 89123 $319,000, 177-21-511-017
    671 hermosa palms ave las vegas nv 89123 $182,000, 177-15-116-001
    738 fontayne ave las vegas nv 89123 $270,000, 177-22-210-046
    7480 puritan ave las vegas nv 89123 $221,000, 177-10-113-018
    7577 poppy meadow st las vegas nv 89123 $173,900, 177-10-613-070
    7765 meadow creek st las vegas nv 89123 $214,500, 177-11-712-055
    8118 tone st las vegas nv 89123 $183,000, 177-15-511-013
    8255 s las vegas blvd #1515 las vegas nv 89123 $275,000, 177-17-510-260
    8640 emerald grove way las vegas nv 89123 $269,000, 176-20-811-008
    8833 haviland rd las vegas nv 89123 $226,600, 177-15-412-035
    902 cavaison ave las vegas nv 89123 $250,000, 177-22-714-023
    9031 galena crossing st las vegas nv 89123 $335,000, 178-19-413-009
    9039 emery lake st las vegas nv 89123 $247,500, 177-23-512-020
    9055 purple leaf st las vegas nv 89123 $148,000, 177-20-511-010
    9484 corato st las vegas nv 89123 $225,000, 177-23-714-025
    950 denberry way las vegas nv 89123 $305,000, 177-10-613-068
    986 country wind way las vegas nv 89123 $259,900, 177-15-811-044
    5 tyrol way las vegas nv 89124 $410,000, 128-31-210-021
    4187 matterhorn way las vegas nv 89124 $295,000, 129-36-610-045
    1141 nevada sky st las vegas nv 89128 $128,000, 138-28-224-010
    1150 n buffalo dr #1076 las vegas nv 89128 $76,000, 138-27-219-068
    2945 channel bay dr las vegas nv 89128 $409,000, 138-16-613-002
    3013 blue fin cir las vegas nv 89128 $229,900, 138-16-513-058
    3125 n buffalo dr #1136 las vegas nv 89128 $163,000, 125-08-416-007
    3150 soft breezes dr #1212 las vegas nv 89128 $75,000, 138-16-516-054
    3150 soft breezes dr #2033 las vegas nv 89128 $64,000, 138-16-516-141
    3151 soaring gulls dr #2075 las vegas nv 89128 $74,000, 138-16-120-199
    7837 desert bell ave las vegas nv 89128 $207,000, 138-21-816-065
    7908 waterfalls ave las vegas nv 89128 $278,000, 138-21-612-015
    8016 painted clay ave las vegas nv 89128 $220,000, 138-21-425-009
    8117 tropic isle cir las vegas nv 89128 $282,500, 138-21-217-015
    8201 point view ct las vegas nv 89128 $367,500, 138-16-413-074
    10348 faustine ave las vegas nv 89129 $166,000, 137-12-513-015
    10533 cliff edge ct las vegas nv 89129 $207,500, 137-01-210-023
    10630 shifting breeze ave las vegas nv 89129 $200,000, 137-12-210-057
    10728 little horse creek ave las vegas nv 89129 $178,000, 137-01-114-022
    3429 round valley way las vegas nv 89129 $170,000, 163-12-603-001
    3504 jewel night st las vegas nv 89129 $310,000, 137-12-715-031
    3921 braod meadow ct las vegas nv 89129 $56,565, 139-19-311-072
    3925 white castle st las vegas nv 89129 $320,000, 138-08-112-004
    4128 bennett mountain st las vegas nv 89129 $320,000, 137-01-412-020
    4252 sparrow springs ct las vegas nv 89129 $142,000, 138-03-313-038
    4425 n chieftain st las vegas nv 89129 $415,000, 138-06-605-016
    4 dunlap crossing st las vegas nv 89129 $305,000, 138-03-211-011
    7301 breezy night ct las vegas nv 89129 $180,000, 138-03-218-022
    8922 indian eagle dr las vegas nv 89129 $172,000, 138-08-315-013
    9113 ballad ave las vegas nv 89129 $176,000, 138-08-412-014
    4705 gonzales dr las vegas nv 89130 $202,500, 138-01-112-002
    4793 hampstead heath ct las vegas nv 89130 $157,000, 138-02-110-020
    4894 w lone mountain rd las vegas nv 89130 $175,000, 125-36-515-058
    4925 signal dr las vegas nv 89130 $202,000, 125-36-813-004
    5704 calm lagoon ave las vegas nv 89130 $242,000, 125-25-211-040
    5744 typan st las vegas nv 89130 $179,990, 125-25-814-061
    5804 wood petal st las vegas nv 89130 $235,000, 125-25-710-002
    5831 rebecca rd las vegas nv 89130 $350,000, 125-26-302-012
    5860 thai coast st las vegas nv 89130 $500,000, 125-25-313-031
    6402 inwood park ct las vegas nv 89130 $324,500, 125-35-310-092
    7065 w ann rd #130-115 las vegas nv 89130 $370,000, 125-10-310-007
    7266 crest peak ave las vegas nv 89130 $167,500, 125-27-311-020
    5216 whisper lake ave las vegas nv 89131 $277,500, 125-13-711-025
    5414 regal willow ct las vegas nv 89131 $272,450, 125-24-110-036
    5830 toofer winds ct las vegas nv 89131 $300,004, 125-12-111-062
    6150 deep autumn ave las vegas nv 89131
    7033 bocaire dr las vegas nv 89131 $237,000, 125-10-511-025
    7221 eaglegate st las vegas nv 89131 $240,000, 125-16-820-029
    7233 boyd ln las vegas nv 89131 $210,000, 178-31-112-018
    7320 misty glow ct las vegas nv 89131 $195,000, 125-16-816-044
    7331 hazel plain ave las vegas nv 89131 $380,000, 125-22-113-018
    7340 silver spirit st las vegas nv 89131 $95,000, 163-30-519-034
    7352 misty glow ct las vegas nv 89131 $165,000, 125-16-816-068
    7604 windswept st las vegas nv 89131 $219,000, 125-16-212-009
    7623 maple meadow st las vegas nv 89131 $252,000, 125-16-215-007
    7679 morning lake dr las vegas nv 89131 $111,777, 124-27-211-067
    7725 curiosity ave las vegas nv 89131 $180,000, 125-16-610-056
    7729 brilliant forest st las vegas nv 89131 $205,000, 125-16-617-005
    8222 sunset horizon st las vegas nv 89131 $411,000, 125-11-310-060
    8323 rainbow sky st las vegas nv 89131 $375,000, 125-11-310-010
    8724 purple wisteria st las vegas nv 89131 $170,000, 125-13-612-023
    9056 walker lake ct las vegas nv 89131 $150,000, 125-17-413-023
    2449 n tenaya #33883 las vegas nv 89133 $328,000, 137-34-615-054
    10424 trenton pl las vegas nv 89134 $265,000, 137-24-512-073
    10504 findlay ave las vegas nv 89134 $270,000, 137-24-211-071
    2601 saltbush dr las vegas nv 89134 $128,834, 138-17-813-022
    2608 palmridge dr las vegas nv 89134 $155,000, 138-17-713-061
    2625 saltbush dr las vegas nv 89134 $170,000, 138-17-714-052
    3109 goodhope ct las vegas nv 89134 $120,000, 138-17-111-008
    8929 brook bay ct las vegas nv 89134 $305,000, 138-30-515-013
    9000 bald eagle dr las vegas nv 89134 $1,145,000, 138-20-213-019
    9309 cactus wood dr las vegas nv 89134 $203,000, 138-18-612-006
    9432 summer rain dr las vegas nv 89134 $197,500, 138-19-515-116
    9716 ridge creek pl las vegas nv 89134 $225,500, 138-19-412-018
    9901 trailwood dr #2133 las vegas nv 89134 $165,000, 138-19-324-015
    10508 hope mills dr las vegas nv 89135 $500,000, 164-13-615-001
    10531 penns creek ct las vegas nv 89135 $228,800, 164-12-514-058
    10651 angelo tenero ave las vegas nv 89135 $294,000, 164-25-620-036
    10810 sterling forest ave las vegas nv 89135 $815,000, 164-12-415-011
    10810 woodstream ct las vegas nv 89135 $715,000, 164-12-411-022
    11414 newton commons dr #101 las vegas nv 89135 $240,000, 164-02-226-041
    2624 heathrow st las vegas nv 89135 $178,000, 164-12-111-080
    4599 denaro dr las vegas nv 89135 $365,000, 164-24-310-063
    5085 alfingo st las vegas nv 89135 $299,000, 164-25-515-053
    11618 costa linda ave las vegas nv 89138 $366,700, 137-35-114-026
    11830 portina dr #2028 las vegas nv 89138 $200,000, 163-07-413-026
    321 corsicana st las vegas nv 89138 $161,100, 138-08-412-018
    608 doletto st las vegas nv 89138 $280,000, 137-35-619-023
    651 hayborn meadows st las vegas nv 89138 $400,000, 137-34-213-063
    679 indian garden st las vegas nv 89138 $243,888, 137-35-618-039
    820 paseo rocoso pl las vegas nv 89138 $295,000, 137-34-716-033
    5047 vacaville ave las vegas nv 89139 $151,000, 176-13-510-050
    6225 humus ave las vegas nv 89139 $294,300, 176-14-113-176
    6274 oread ave las vegas nv 89139 $134,580, 176-11-510-153
    6274 pangea ave las vegas nv 89139 $160,000, 176-11-511-057
    6696 coronado palms ave las vegas nv 89139 $181,000, 163-20-714-003
    6721 dunraven ave las vegas nv 89139 $175,000, 176-11-112-020
    6774 coronado crest ave las vegas nv 89139 $363,000, 176-11-310-013
    7568 belgian lion st las vegas nv 89139 $236,250, 177-18-218-042
    8059 wards ferry st las vegas nv 89139 $213,000, 176-12-810-212
    8127 sorrel st las vegas nv 89139 $292,510, 176-14-113-178
    8133 sorrel st las vegas nv 89139 $295,624, 176-14-113-177
    8144 sorrel st las vegas nv 89139 $278,300, 176-14-113-159
    8228 sorrel st las vegas nv 89139 $315,320, 176-14-113-145
    8466 loxton cellars st las vegas nv 89139 $225,500, 177-18-215-105
    10 pink dogwood dr las vegas nv 89141 $789,363, 191-07-510-090
    10228 nolinas st las vegas nv 89141 $205,000, 124-19-616-016
    10535 refugio st las vegas nv 89141 $385,000, 177-31-511-021
    10762 rococo ct las vegas nv 89141 $177,000, 177-31-615-065
    10795 avenzano st las vegas nv 89141 $207,000, 177-32-213-002
    11135 ferragamo ct las vegas nv 89141 $225,000, 177-31-411-029
    11171 verismo st las vegas nv 89141 $162,500, 177-32-414-015
    11257 lavandou dr las vegas nv 89141 $340,000, 176-36-812-048
    4846 graziano ave las vegas nv 89141 $191,000, 177-31-213-043
    4949 calvary ct las vegas nv 89141 $76,000, 177-23-817-376
    8 sand dollar ave las vegas nv 89141 $117,139, 176-25-810-032
    5337 blue oat ave las vegas nv 89141 $155,000, 176-25-810-184
    5548 tabernas ct las vegas nv 89141 $200,000, 176-36-416-036
    5571 casa palazzo ct las vegas nv 89141 $392,000, 176-36-214-024
    56 olympia canyon way las vegas nv 89141 $2,598,750, 191-06-217-024
    6088 bassio ave las vegas nv 89141 $245,000, 176-36-216-050
    1699 divinity st las vegas nv 89142 $52,000, 140-29-411-149
    2529 winterwood blvd las vegas nv 89142 $167,000, 161-09-110-052
    2747 sunrise bluff dr las vegas nv 89142 $255,000, 161-11-210-008
    5726 slice dr las vegas nv 89142 $149,900, 161-04-813-106
    6305 peach orchard rd las vegas nv 89142 $145,000, 161-03-813-040
    6775 azure clouds way las vegas nv 89142 $298,000, 161-11-114-002
    7501 crooked branch st las vegas nv 89143 $191,500, 125-17-715-031
    7509 nicklin st las vegas nv 89143 $175,000, 125-17-715-023
    8025 quilted bear st las vegas nv 89143 $221,000, 125-08-122-011
    8908 rusty rifle ave las vegas nv 89143 $269,900, 125-08-212-018
    9100 picket fence ave las vegas nv 89143 $215,000, 125-08-219-008
    1004 duckhorn ct #104 las vegas nv 89144 $148,000, 138-30-215-064
    1012 domnus ln #203 las vegas nv 89144 $157,000, 138-30-215-033
    10304 huxley cross ln las vegas nv 89144 $375,000, 137-25-717-025
    10321 pacific summerset ln las vegas nv 89144 $285,000, 137-24-813-108
    10524 pine glen ave #105 las vegas nv 89144 $127,500, 137-36-113-255
    10657 royal view ave las vegas nv 89144 $245,000, 137-25-314-023
    10709 beringer dr las vegas nv 89144 $800,000, 137-25-118-029
    10828 windrose point ave las vegas nv 89144 $12,500, 139-28-612-084
    11024 sonoma creek ct las vegas nv 89144 $239,900, 137-26-715-045
    116 s ring dove dr las vegas nv 89144 $638,000, 137-36-519-002
    6325 juliano rd las vegas nv 89144 $309,900, 125-21-412-003
    917 corsica ln las vegas nv 89144 $250,000, 137-25-612-034
    9401 canyon mesa dr las vegas nv 89144 $205,000, 139-34-412-072
    1001 neil armstrong cir las vegas nv 89145 $132,000, 138-34-415-025
    105 redstone st las vegas nv 89145 $125,000, 138-34-519-032
    124 sam jonas dr las vegas nv 89145 $167,000, 138-33-518-006
    248 jon belger dr las vegas nv 89145 $155,000, 138-33-111-067
    357 tobler dr las vegas nv 89145 $132,500, 138-33-216-010
    6948 erin cir las vegas nv 89145 $157,500, 125-13-511-028
    7709 pheasant ln las vegas nv 89145 $175,000, 138-33-715-024
    8000 mount harris ct las vegas nv 89145 $55,000, 138-25-111-033
    8104 leger dr las vegas nv 89145 $200,000, 138-33-215-011
    8348 san grail ct las vegas nv 89145 $95,000, 138-33-323-039
    8409 running deer ave #202 las vegas nv 89145 $72,500, 138-28-616-024
    9101 alta dr #1103 las vegas nv 89145 $1,140,000, 138-32-213-090
    924 vincent way las vegas nv 89145 $180,000, 138-34-811-031
    9724 royal lamb dr las vegas nv 89145 $110,000, 177-13-310-020
    1275 westwind rd las vegas nv 89146 $260,590, 163-01-105-005
    2835 s bronco st las vegas nv 89146 $440,000, 174-20-401-013
    3049 westwind rd las vegas nv 89146 $182,500, 162-06-215-013
    5218 stampa ave las vegas nv 89146 $127,500, 163-12-711-002
    5883 laredo st las vegas nv 89146 $99,000, 163-12-111-017
    5991 w obannon dr las vegas nv 89146 $149,000, 138-36-611-031
    3673 spring day ct las vegas nv 89147 $208,000, 163-16-614-046
    3716 white peppermint dr las vegas nv 89147 $190,603, 163-15-311-015
    3729 broadmead st las vegas nv 89147 $330,000, 163-17-714-006
    3730 bombastic ct las vegas nv 89147 $57,000, 163-21-516-255
    3766 cape solitude st las vegas nv 89147 $148,500, 163-18-310-084
    3864 almondview st las vegas nv 89147 $211,500, 163-15-313-044
    4540 avery rock st las vegas nv 89147 $296,000, 163-21-717-007
    4579 tidal cove ct las vegas nv 89147 $182,500, 163-21-715-044
    4644 altina st las vegas nv 89147 $25,000, 139-27-110-018
    4707 desert plains rd las vegas nv 89147 $255,000, 163-21-817-013
    4718 stavanger ln las vegas nv 89147 $160,000, 163-20-718-020
    4768 skyhawk canyon st las vegas nv 89147 $340,000, 163-19-412-047
    4777 crakow ct las vegas nv 89147 $130,000, 138-11-110-150
    7140 mountain moss dr las vegas nv 89147 $112,000, 139-31-410-068
    7219 empress dr las vegas nv 89147 $123,000, 163-22-616-043
    7950 w flamingo rd #1125 las vegas nv 89147 $80,000, 163-16-811-068
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A These options have now been added to the CMA SmartDashboard in the IPS tab B The Merge and Override options are not supported in R71 C The options are available in Global Smart Dash boad / IPS tab in Profiles options D From the Provider-1 Properties in MDG, select the Global Policies tab and enable the check box 'Enable legacy SmartDefense merging options' Answer: B QUESTION: 171 You are the responsible administrator for two customers managed by your MSP You must configure each CMA with local objects as well as rules You have to configure the IPS accordingly In addition, you will configure and assign Global Rules for your customers What minimum rights do you need at the MDS? A Provider Superuser B Customer Manager C Customer Superuser D Global Manager Answer: D QUESTION: 172 One of your customers will not renew their subscription for the IPS Software Blade, and decides to cancel their subscription early What happens if they don't allow the IPS service to expire? A When the subscription has ended, the IPS falls back to run only checks that were active with the first version published B Since the customer is still subscribed to IPS service via MDG, all things run as before The MSP has to take care that customers will renew their subscription C New updates are not possible after the IPS service blade has ended, but all checks being downloaded before are still configured and active D IPS update service is free of charge and therefore there is no time limit for it Answer: A QUESTION: 173 You manage several customers with Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 Two of the customers need to be connected via a global VPN using VPN Communities in a Global Rule In the MDG, you configure both Gateways to be enabled for Global use Then you define a Global VPN Community in the Global SmartDashboard How do you configure a rule so that encrypted HTTP traffic is accepted between the corresponding Gateways? A In the menu of the Global SmartDashboard, select Policy > Convert To Simplified Mode, follow the Wizard and define a rule accepting HTTP traffic that fits to the community listed in the column VPN B It's possible to define Global VPN Communities, but it is not possible to use them in a Global Rule Base C In the Global SmartDashboard, define a rule accepting the wanted traffic In the column VPN select the VPN community y5o8u have defined D After having defined a Global VPN Community, the Global Rule Base needs to be assigned to both customers The VPN can only be defined in each (local) CMA individually Answer: A QUESTION: 174 Steve is the Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 Superuser of an MSP having a Provider-1 R71 environment with 2 MDS Manager systems, 4 MDS Containers and 2 MLM's One of the customers of the MSP requires redundancy for the CMA's Steve has already added a secondary CMA, but the customer insists on having one more CMA What is the best way to do this? A Steve can add a third CMA on the same MDS as the secondary CMA as a single customer can only use up to two MDS Containers for CMA's B Provider-1 only supports 2 CMA's per customer, so Steve will have to install a Security Management Server for backing up the CMA C This is not possible as Provider-1 supports only one backup / secondary CMA D Steve can add a third CMA on another MDS Container Answer: D QUESTION: 175 Select the correct statement about the following Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1environment example A This will never work because all the MDS containers must be on the same LAN and it is also a license violation B This setup will not work as the MDS Co5n9tainer-HA can only host CMA-HA's C This will not work as the number of CMA-HA's must be equal to the number of primary CMA's D This setup will work without any issues as Provider-1 supports a mix of Primary and Secondary CMA's on the same MDS Container as long as they are of different customers Answer: D QUESTION: 176 In Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 R71, the Security Management backup server can be installed on: A any platform where Security Management Server is supported B any platform where Security Management Server is supported except Windows or Nokia IPSO C SecurePlatform or Windows Server D only SecurePlatform Pro Answer: B QUESTION: 177 As in the example below, MDS-ManagerAndContainer is Active whereas MDS-Manager2 is in Standby mode If a Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 Superuser logs into MDS- ManagerAndContainer in Read/Write mode using the MDG while the first user is still logged in, and another Provider-1 Superuser tries to log in to MDS-Manager2, what will happen? The second user will: A get an application error and the MDG will close B get a message informing him that another user is logged in with Read/Write access Hence, he will be allowed to log in with Read-Only access C also be allowed to log in through the MDG in Read/Write mode and they can both make changes to the Provider-1 configuration within the MDG D get a message informing him that another user is logged in with Read/Write access, and an option to disconnect the first user will be given QUESTION: 178 Which of the following is the correct syntax for mirroring all CMA's from FirstMDS to SecondMDS? A cma_mirror_all -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS B p1shell/mirrorcma -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS -c 2 C mdscmd mirrorcma -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS -c 2 D mirrorcma -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS -c 2 Answer: C QUESTION: 179 Let's assume that your Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 configuration has only one MDS You want the installation to be redundant, so you decide to set up a secondary MDS Container and Manager While completing the installation, you need to provide the activation key The installation is completed after a reboot The final steps are taken with the MDG connecting to the primary MDS Which of the following statements is TRUE? A When the activation key is provided, synchronization at MDS as well as CMA level is started automatically B The first step is to define the secondary MDS in the MDG and to provide the activation key After this is done, it is not possible to synchronize at MDS level only because only the complete configuration of a MDS can be synchronized (including all CMAs) C Before synchronization can start, both the activation key and performing an Install Database are necessary D When the secondary MDS is defined in the MDG and the activation key has been correct, synchronization at the MDS level can be started immediately Answer: D QUESTION: 180 NetSec MSP has Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 R71 in their New York network They have 1 MDS Manager and 1 MDS Container on a Solaris server with 10 CMA's NetSec has recently setup a network in Dallas and wants to use the Provider-1 MDS Container hosting backup CMA's for all the 10 customers The management is not in favor of buying a Solaris Server, hence they are asking if they can use SecurePlatform on Intel hardware How can NetSec implement this requirement? SecurePlatform in Dallas and then associate the two to enable High Availability' B As it is not possible to have a secondary CMA on a different operating system, NetSec will have to install 10 Security Management Servers to backup the CMA's' C They can have the new Provider-1 R71 MDS Container on SecurePlatform and host all the secondary CMA's on this MDS; Provider-1 R71 HA supports different operating systems' D They will have to buy a Solaris Server to install the MDS Container and host the secondary CMA's on that as it is required for the HA systems to be running the same operating system and version' Answer: C QUESTION: 181 When importing the configuration of a Management Server, the CMA is also imported The name of the CMA is the same name that the Management Server had before How do you configure a name change to the CMA before the CA is re- established again? A At the MDS, change to the corresponding CMA context using the mdsenv command Then issue the command fwm sic_reset to reset the CA completely B In the MDG, select the CMA you want to change With a right-click on the object, select edit and change the name in the window that opens C In the CLI of the MDS environment, issue the command fwm sic_reset You will be asked which SIC you want to reset Select the appropriate CMA and the name as well as the CMA will be changed D The name of a CMA cannot be changed by design because this name is used in certificates Answer: A QUESTION: 182 Importing an existing Management Server configuration into a MDS via CLI might be useful First, the new customer needs to be defined After having defined the CMA, an existing configuration can be imported How can this be done? A At the CLI of the MDS type\linecma_migrate B It is not possible to import a configuration using CLI This can only done using the MDG C At the CLI of the MDS type\linecma_migrate –s -t D At the CLI of the MDS type\linecma_migrate -t –s Answer: A CheckPoint 156-815-71 Exam (Check Point Certified Managed(R) Security Expert R71) Detailed Information Training & Certification Check Point offers a wide range of education programs, professional certifications and self-study resources developed in-house by Check Point security experts. Training is available from our global network of Authorized Training Centers (ATC). TRAINING CALENDAR FIND A TRAINING CENTER CERTIFICATION FAQ Training Together with our Authorized Training Centers, we offer comprehensive technical training and certifications for IT security professionals who deploy and manage Check Point Security solutions. Entry-level Security Awareness Text book and course covers important principles of CyberSecurity from a vendor neutral perspective. Concepts include issues of physical and document security along with data protection and recovery in the event of data or systems loss. Security Principles Associate Core Security Administrator Training Three-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage daily operations of Check Point Security Gateway and Management Software Blades systems on the GAiA operating system. Security Administrator R77.30 Security Administrator R80 Core Security Expert Training Advanced three-day course teaches how to build, modify, deploy and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems on the GAiA operating system. Hands-on lab exercises teach how to debug firewall processes, optimize VPN performance and upgrade Management Servers. Security Engineering NextGen Security Training Learn how to deploy the latest cyber-security solutions to defend and prevent today’s evolving threats Threat Prevention Secure Web Gateway Advanced Security Training Learn to manage virtualized security in high-end networks and advanced security optimization techniques. MDSM with VSX Security Master Custom Training Certifications Check Point Certifications mean expertise with the technology that secures the internet for all Fortune and Global 100 companies. The benefits of becoming Check Point certified include the skills to support and sell Check Point products, 2-year expert access to our SecureKnowledge database and advanced product documentation. Getting Started: A Check Point UserCenter or PartnerMap account is required to receive certification benefits. You can create a new account at the User Center. If you are not sure about your account, please contact Account Services for verification. You also need a Pearson VUE account, and the email address should be the same as your UserCenter account. Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80 Essential certification for IT Admins who manage daily operations of Check Point Security solutions. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R77.30 Essential certification for IT Admins who manage daily operations of Check Point Security solutions. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE) R77.30 The next level of certification proves troubleshooting skills and the ability to maximize the performance of security networks. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Managed Security Expert (CCMSE) Advanced certification proves expertise in Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM) R77.30 Our most technical certification proves advanced use of time-saving commands to configure and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems. GENERAL INQUIRIES Q: What is the difference between “Certification” and “Accreditation”? A: Check Point recognizes those professionals who have passed a rigorous, thorough examination process with a “Certification”. Certifications are based on proctored exams derived from comprehensive job models and detailed instructional objectives. Accreditations are derived from product specific content exams delivered in a less formal examination setting and recognize an individual’s effort to stay current on the latest products. Q: What versions are available? A: Our Current certifications are based on R77.30 and the new R80. Q: How long will R77.30 be available? A: Current projections have the R77.30 exams retiring 3rd quarter 2017. Q: How long does a certification last? A: Certification, like security, must be kept current to be truly effective - which is why we strongly encourage you to constantly refresh and keep your certification current. Certifications expire after 24 months. Q: Where can I take a Check Point certification exam? A: Check Point professional certification exams are proctored through Pearson VUE, a third party testing vendor with over 3.500 locations worldwide. You can register for any Check Point exam and earn your certification by visiting Pearson VUE website and creating a Web Profile. Q: Do I have to take classes in order to take the exams? A: No, it is possible to take an exam with only your own experience or self-study using the Check Point courseware, but we highly recommend taking a class instead. Instructor-led training accelerates and focuses your learning, gives you hands-on experience and an opportunity to make mistakes in the lab, and is much more cost-effective than self-study in your spare time. CHECK POINT EDUCATION SERVICES CERTIFICATION FAQ Updated September 2016 2 Q: What certifications are available? A: Check Point certifications are structured around comprehensive job models for administration, engineering (Expert), enterprise management, and advanced systems (Security Master). Certifications include: Core Security courses establish a strong foundation in essential Check Point product knowledge and skills Certifications Related Courses Exams CCSPA Check Point Certified Security Principles Associate Principles of Network Security #156-110 CCSA Check Point Certified Security Administrator Check Point Security Administration #156-215 CCSE Check Point Certified Security Expert Check Point Security Administration #156-215 Check Point Security Engineering #156-315 Advanced Specializations recognize your proficiency and expertise in specific disciplines and technologies Certifications Related Courses Exams CCSM Check Point Certified Security Master Check Point Certified Security Master #156-115 CCMSE Check Point Managed Security Expert Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension #156-820 Q: What are the prerequisites for each Check Point certification? A: Check Point certifications are designed to build upon the knowledge and skills of the previous courses, reinforcing lessons learned and extending your competencies with ever more complex and valuable skills. Certifications Prerequisites CCSPA Check Point Certified Security Principles Associate None CCSA R77 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R77 TCP/IP and routing fundamentals CCSA R80 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R80 TCP/IP and routing fundamentals CCSE R77 Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 CCSA R77 CCSE R77 Update Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 Any prior CCSE up to R65 CCSM Check Point Certified Security Master R77 CCSE R77 CCMSE R77 Check Point Managed Security Expert R77 CCSE R77 Updated September 2016 3 Q: What courses should I take to prepare for the exams? A: To help prepare for exams, you should consider the following corresponding courses: Core Security courses establish a strong foundation in essential Check Point product knowledge and skills Exams Courses Certifications #156-110 Principles of Network Security CCSPA Check Point Certified Security Principles Associate #156-215 Check Point Security Administration R80 CCSA R80 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R80 #156-215 Check Point Security Administration R77 CCSA R77 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R77 #156-215 Check Point Security Administration R77 CCSE R77 Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 #156-315 Check Point Security Engineering R77 #156-915 CCSE R77 Update CCSE R77 Update Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 Advanced Specializations recognize your proficiency and expertise in specific disciplines and technologies Exams Courses Certifications #156-115.77 Check Point Security Master R77 CCSM R77 Check Point Certified Security Master #156-820.77 Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension CCMSE R77 Check Point Managed Security Expert R77 Q: Is study material available? A: Exam objectives are posted on the Education Services page for reference, but all official training materials are provided when you attend instructor-led training through one of our Authorized Training Center (ATC) partners. Q: Where can I find training classes? A: Courses are offered through our network of over 230 Authorized Training Centers (ATC) around the globe. Use our partner locator to find an ATC near you and sign up for training today! Q: Are classes available globally? A: Yes! We have Authorized Training Centers (ATC) in over 42 countries worldwide - just use our partner locator to find an ATC near you and sign up for training. If for any reason you can't find an ATC near you, send an email to us directly at training@checkpoint.com and ask about on-site training options. Q: How long are the classes recommended for certification exams? A: Check Point recommends minimum time frames for each course, but individual Authorized Training Centers (ATC) may choose to adjust the time to offer more 'intensive' courses or to cover topics in more detail. You should check with your local ATC for the exact length of each course to be sure the time fits your schedule. Updated September 2016 4 Q: I know that CCSA certification is a prerequisite for CCSE. Can I achieve a CCSE R80 certification with a CCSA R70 or later certification? A: No. Since R80 is a completely new product version with many new features, only CCSA R80 certification provides the background necessary to be a prerequisite to CCSE R80 certification. However, if you have a CCSE based on NGX or the Blade technology, you are eligible to take our upgrade exam #156-915 to earn your CCSE R80 certification. Q: When will my R77 certifications expire? A: Check Point Certifications are good for 24 months. Q: My R70 certifications have already expired. Do I need to start over with CCSA R80 to update to CCSE R80? A: Actually, you don’t. Even though your certification has expired, the eligibility for updates to the latest version has not. If you ever held a CCSE certification, you are eligible for the Update exam. Q: Why has the 156-915.77 exam been removed from the exam list? A: The 156-915.77 exam was retired as soon as the 156-915.80 exam was released. Check Point only offers updates to the latest version of the product. Q: How can I learn about updates in the Check Point Certified Professional Program? A: You can always find the latest information on our News and Updates page, including special offers on the most indemand courses and certifications. Back to top MY INFORMATION Q: Why is my Check Point Professional ID Number important? A: It represents your personal identification with Check Point Software Technologies and establishes proof of your certification. You are only allowed one Certified Professional ID number. Q: How do I get my Check Point Professional ID Number? A: It is assigned to you when you register with VUE for the first time to take an exam. It will be in the form CP00000nnnnn. Q: When do I use my Check Point Professional ID Number? A: Whenever you contact VUE to register for another exam session, and whenever you contact Check Point regarding any certification issue. Q: Why do I need to provide an email address? A: An email address is necessary in order to create your User Center account - your access point for certification benefits - as well as keep you up to date with any important changes or updates. Q: If I change jobs, will I still have access to my certification information and benefits? A: Yes! Your certification is yours. However, since your email address is based on your work email you will want to contact Account Services via accountservices@checkpoint.com to update your User Center account and request that your information be linked to your new email address. Q: How do I advise Check Point of any change of address or other relevant information? A: You can send your profile updates to accountservices@checkpoint.com. Back to top Updated September 2016 5 WHAT ABOUT THE BENEFITS Q: I just passed my exams. When can I expect to receive my certificate? A: Check Point now provides e-Certificates that you can access from your User Center profile. Once we receive your exam results we'll update your User Center account with your new credentials, giving you immediate access to your online benefits like Access to SecureKnowledge and your on-line Certification Profile. Q. How do I download the electronic copy of my certification? A: To download your certificate(s), please follow the instructions below. 1. Log into User Center at https://usercenter.checkpoint.com/usercenter/portal 2. Click "Assets/Info". 3. Click "My Certifications" under "My Info" option. 4. Click "Download" to the right of the certificate to open/save/print. a. Open to print. b. Save to print later. c. Cancel to do nothing. Q: What type of SecureKnowledge access do CCSA's get? A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCSA contract. Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCSE get? A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCSE contract. Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCSM get? A: Expert Access for the duration of the CCSM contract. Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCMSE get? A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCMSE contract. Q: How do I access my benefits? A: By setting up a User Centre account based on the email address you used with VUE, you can have access to our Certified Professionals Only web site and to advanced features of Secure Knowledge. Please try the following: If you do not currently have a User Center account, please visit the following URL: https://usercenter.checkpoint.com/usercenter/index.jsp You may reference at the bottom of the page a section titled "New Customers": 1. Click on the hyperlink titled "Sign Up Now!" 2. Begin completing your profile. 3. Use the email ID provided VUE for testing. 4. Set your own password. Q: How do I find the Certified Professionals Only website? A: By clicking on the link https://www.checkpoint.com/services/education/cpo/index.html Q: Do I have access to Check Point online technical support? A: Yes. As a Certified Professional you have Advanced Access to SecureKnowledge, our online technical knowledge database with thousands of solutions, how to articles, and troubleshooting tips to solve your most difficult issues. Q: Are there logos associated with Check Point certifications? A: Yes. As a certified professional you have usage rights to the logo for your certification level. Logos for each Check Point certification are downloadable from the Certified Professional Only website. Updated September 2016 6 Q: Will becoming a Check Point Certified Professional improve my career or employment opportunities? A: Companies hire certified professionals to ensure maximum security and availability of valuable business assets, and know certified professionals are more efficient, productive, and deliver lower total cost of ownership from Check Point solutions. And as one of over 50,000 Check Point Certified Professionals worldwide, you'll get immediate recognition of your experience, knowledge, and abilities while investing in your professional development and security career. Q: Where do I go to access my benefits? A: All benefits are accessed through your User Center account. Create a User Center account now if you don't already have one. If you have any problems with creating your account and linking your certifications, contact accountservices@checkpoint.com Q: Why is my certification information not listed in my User Center account? A: Your certification information could not be listed in your User Center account for one of the following reasons: • We tried to activate your benefits but there was no User Center account with the email address we have on file for you. Please check to ensure that the email account you provided VUE for registration matches the email account you used to set up your User Center account. • The benefits you received from a certain Check Point certification have expired. • We might not have received your results from Pearson VUE. If you do not see your benefits or certification listed with your User Center account, send an email to accountservices@checkpoint.com and we'll try to resolve the issue for you. Q: What email address should be used when registering for an exam? A: It is important that the email address used when registering for an exam is the email address associated to your User Center profile. This ensures that all certifications are reflected within the User Center and the e-certificate can be downloaded via the account. Q: Can certifications get tied to an alias email address? A: All certifications must be tied to a person-specific email address. Q: How do I update the email address associated to my User Center profile? A: For assistance or the steps of how to update your email address online, please contact our Account Services department for assistance; accountservices@checkpoint.com. Q: What should I do if my Pearson VUE profile has the wrong email address? A: Please contact Pearson VUE for assistance; http://www.pearsonvue.com/checkpoint/contact/ Back to top TELL ME ABOUT THE EXAMS Q: What is the difference between “low stakes” and “high stakes” exams? A: All Check Point exams are delivered through Pearson VUE. “Low stakes” exams are those delivered over the Internet to your desktop. They do not require attendance at a Pearson VUE Authorized Testing Center (ATC). “High stakes” exams are only delivered at Pearson VUE Authorized Testing Centers (ATC) and delivery meets certain exacting compliance standards. Q: In what order should I take the exams? A: Courses, certifications, and exams are all designed to build on the lessons learned and develop your skills and knowledge, so we recommend starting with CCSA R77 and CCSE R77 to get a core security foundation. From there you can choose the specialization or area of expertise that best matches your job role or career goals. See the complete list of courses, exams, and prerequisites earlier in the FAQ for more information. Updated September 2016 7 Q: How much do the exams cost? A: Exams vary in price between US $150-$200, but exact pricing is available through Pearson VUE. Q: Where can I take a Check Point certification exam? A: Check Point exams are offered through Pearson VUE, a third party testing vendor with over 3,500 testing centers worldwide. Register for your exam at a testing location near you. Q: What is the format of the exams? A: The exams are composed of multiple choice and scenario questions. All questions are “Select the BEST answer” type questions. There are no multiple response. Q: How long are the exams? A: We use a 90-minute exam in all English-speaking countries. Non-English speaking countries receive an additional 30 minutes. Q: How do I know I am ready for an exam? A: If you are preparing for the CCSA certification and want to take the 156-215 exam, you can determine if you are ready by taking the 156-601 CCSA R77 practice exam. This exam presents 40 questions from a subset of the actual exam pool. Feedback is limited to providing the correct answer during the exam. If you are preparing to complete the CCSE certification and want to take the 156-315 exam, you can determine if you are ready by taking the 156-602 CCSE R77 practice exam. This exam presents 40 questions from a subset of the actual exam pool. Feedback is limited to providing the correct answer during the exam. Q: Are the Check Point certification exams adaptive? A: Check Point has no plans at this time to move into adaptive exams. Q: Do any of the exams contain questions where the correct answer relies on the selection of multiple responses, even though the exam doesn't indicate to check more than one? A: Although the instructions for each exam state that there is one BEST answer, in truth the best answer may be a combination of more than one in the final results. We do this to evaluate how each student reaches their conclusion and makes difficult choices, just like you will be faced with on the job. However, there is no partial credit for incorrectly marked questions. Q: Should I have experience with Check Point products before attempting to pass an exam? A: Surveys of certified professionals suggest that a candidate have one to two years’ experience with the product in a production environment before attempting the CCSA certification. Since that isn’t practical in today’s environment, we recommend six months after training. A similar interval trended when studying the Engineering tasks of a certified CCSE professional. We recommend one year. The new Check Point Security Master certification job profile suggests five years’ experience before challenging the exam. Of course, this varies by individual. Q: Can I take the CCSA and CCSE exams on the same day? A: Yes, you can take the CCSA exam and later that same day, challenge the CCSE exam. Q: Does Check Point have an exam retake policy? A: Yes. If you fail an exam and want to retake it, the following applies: • Wait 24 hours after first unsuccessful attempt • Wait 30 days after each subsequent attempt thereafter Note: Once you pass an exam you cannot take it again. Updated September 2016 8 Q: I have taken the exam twice, and scored exactly the same thing. How is this possible? Is there a problem with the exam or the testing software? A: This is actually quite common, and indicates how reliable Check Point's exams are in testing your knowledge and skills. To create the best certification exams, we focus on consistency and on how an exam will measure competencies. There is a related learning/testing condition called "plateauing". Let's say you've studied hard, practiced the labs and exercises, and absorbed all you can through the current study approach. Studies and experience show you will consistently score the same regardless how much you review the material beyond that point. In this case the best solution for you would be to take a different study approach to gain new insight, and retain more knowledge than you would in just one method - we suggest taking an additional class, or working through some different practice exercises. Q: Does Check Point penalize incorrect answers? A: Check Point does not subtract points from your score for answering a question incorrectly. You will simply not get credit for that question. When taking one of our exams, answer as many questions as you can, even if you are not certain of your answer. Back to top MAINTAINING CURRENCY Q: I wanted to extend my certification by retaking my last exam but got the information from Pearson VUE that I’m not allowed to do so because I’ve already finished that. How do I extend my certification? A: Check Point policy is that you do not retake an exam you have already passed. You either update or upgrade. Ideally, the best course is to take the next higher exam. Q: What is the difference between “Inactive” and “Valid”? A: “Inactive” means that a candidate has not kept their certifications current in an aggressive threat environment. All professional certifications - those taken in a proctored exam environment - are good for, or considered “Current”, for two years. “Valid” refers to the candidate actually having met the requirements for Certification. Q: What are Continuing Education Credits? A: Check Point values lifelong learning. It is essential in an ever changing threat environment. Candidates can acquire Continuing Education Credits by participating in certain events, or by taking certain Low Stakes exams. Candidates are eligible to acquire two Continuing Education credits in a two year certification period Q: What low stakes exams are eligible for Continuing Education Credits? A: Where Check Points High stakes professional exams are primarily focused on performance-based questions, lowstakes exams are focused more on product knowledge and product features. Currently, on the Pearson VUE exam site, the following low stakes exams are available: 156-728 – Gaia Overview 156-729 – Advanced IPS 156-730 – SandBlast 156-733 – Mobile Threat Prevention SE Any two of these will renew your current CCSE certification for one year 1. What are the pre-requisites for the CCSE R75 exam? CCSA R70 or CCSA 71 or CCSA R75. 2. How can I update my R65 certification? If you have any CCSA R60 certification, take the CCSA R70/71 Update Training Blade to update your CCSA certification. If you have a CCSE R60 certification, take the CCSE R70/71 Update Training Blade to update your CCSE certification. 3. How long is my certification valid? Check Point certifications are valid for 2 years. CCMAs are valid for 3 years. Any certification more than three (3) years old is not considered current. Certifications become inactive after five years. Your benefits may be suspended if your certification is not current. Your certification can be maintained with annual continuing education credits. 4. What are ‘continuing education credits’? Continuing education credits help you maintain Check Point certifications without starting over with every product release. Continuing education credits can be earned in a variety of ways like completing shorter training lessons (Training Blades), by participating in our test development process, and even attending CPX. 5. What are the pre-requisites for CCMA? CCSE is mandatory; CCMSE is suggested. 6. Do you have a test-out option? Though highly recommended, it is not a requirement to attend a training course before challenging the exam. You may test at any time, however it is advised you spend at least 6 months working with Check Point products before attempting to achieve certification. 7. Are study materials available? Free study guides and practice exams are available for download at http://www.checkpoint.com/services/education/index.html#resources. Courseware can be purchased on our eStore and Training is available from an ATC. 8. How soon can I re-take an exam if I fail? If you fail an exam you must wait 24 hours before your 2nd attempt, and 30 days for the 3rd attempt. Once you pass a test you cannot take it again for a higher score. 9. Can I get exam insurance? Students automatically get a 50% re-take discount on any 2nd attempt of the CCSA and CCSE R75 exams. 10. I only failed by 1 point and based on my calculations I should have passed – what happened? The function of certification is to provide proof the Check Point Certified professional is qualified to protect the lifeblood of organizations – their data. Check Point takes this very seriously and we constantly strive to administer the most effective exams. Passing is calculated by comparing the number of questions answered correctly versus the number of questions answered incorrectly. Not all sections of the test are weighted equally. ©2012 Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. . Classification: [Unrestricted] — For everyone | P. 2 11. Can I take any R65 level exams? No, all R65 exams have been retired except for the Japanese versions. Our philosophy is to provide training and certification only for current technologies so our partners and customers will always benefit from the latest security advancements. 12. Where can I find more information about Check Point Certified Professionals? The Check Point Certified Professionals website and newsletter are a benefit which contain special information and resources that are not available to the public. 13. What happens when I pass my exam? When will I receive my Certificate? After you pass a Check Point exam at VUE, your exam results are uploaded. On the 15th and 30th, we process all certification results and order certification kits. It takes 6-8 weeks to receive your certificate. Your advanced access to Secure Knowledge and the Certified Professionals website is established once you achieve certification. 14. Why can’t I have more than one account at Pearson VUE test centers? Check Point only allows one Pearson VUE account to track your Check Point exams. If you change companies, please update the contact information in your Pearson VUE account instead of creating a new one so your Check Point certifications will follow you. You can verify your accounts with Customer Service here http://www.vue.com/checkpoint/contact/ 15. What happens if someone gets caught cheating? How do you prevent it? Every individual who takes an exam signs our Non-disclosure agreement. Anyone caught in the act of cheating or sharing exam items will have their Check Point certifications revoked for 2 years. All testing privileges and partner program participation will be deactivated during this time. Check Point collaborates with major technology companies to prevent cheating through test pattern analysis and distribution best practices. Together we identify and take legal action against unauthorized test centers and inaccurate “brain dump” sites. 16. What are the benefits of Check Point certification? Check Point Certified Professionals receive access to the Advanced SecureKnowledge base, Certified Professionals only website and quarterly newsletter for 2 years. Check Point Certified Master Architects (CCMA) receive 3 years Expert level access to SecureKnowledge. 17. How do I access my certification benefits? Make sure your Check Point User Center (UC) email address matches the email address registered with Pearson VUE. Your UC profile will automatically be updated with each certification, including advanced access to SecureKnowledge and the Certified Professionals only website. Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80 Today, managing security is a complex endeavor. The key to managing this complexity is through security consolidation – bringing all security protections and functions under one umbrella. With R80 management, security consolidation is fully realized. This three-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage the daily operations of your Check Point infrastructure with R80. TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC Course Description Learn How To Install R80 management and a security gateway in a distributed environment Configure objects, rules, and settings to define a security policy Work with multiple concurrent administrators and define permission profiles Configure a Virtual Private Network and work with Check Point clustering Perform periodic administrator tasks as specified in administrator job descriptions Prerequisites Basic knowledge of networking 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended How You Will Benefit Be prepared to defend against network threats Evaluate existing security policies and optimize the rule base Manage user access to corporate LANs Monitor suspicious network activities and analyze attacks Troubleshoot network connections Implement Check Point backup techniques Exam Information Exam# 156-215.80 What You Need To Know Check Point Technology Overview Security Policy Management Monitoring Traffic and Connections Network Address Translations Basic Concepts of VPN Managing User Access Working with ClusterXL Administrator Task Implementation Prerequisites 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended Check Point User Center account Pearson VUE Test Center account How You Will Benefit CCSA’s rank higher than other security vendor professionals Validation you have the skills to implement the latest network security advancements Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R77.30 Advance your knowledge on the GAiA operating system! 3-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage daily operations of Check Point Security Gateway and Management Software Blades systems on the GAiA operating system. TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC DOWNLOAD STUDY GUIDE Course Description Learn How To Install the security gateway in a distributed environment Configure rules on Web and Gateway servers Create a basic rule base in SmartDashboard and assign permissions Schedule backups and seamless upgrades with minimal downtime Monitor and troubleshoot IPS and common network traffic Prerequisites Basic knowledge of networking Windows Server and/or UNIX skills Internet and TCP/IP experience How You Will Benefit Be prepared to defend against network threats Evaluate existing security policies and optimize the rule base Manage user access to corporate LANs Monitor suspicious network activities and analyze attacks Troubleshoot network connections Protect email and messaging content Exam Information Exam# 156-215.77 What You Need To Know Check Point Technology Overview Deployment Platforms and Security Policies Monitoring Traffic and Connections Network Address Translations User Management and Authentication Using SmartUpdate Implementing Identity Awareness Configuring VPN tunnels Resolving security administration issues Prerequisites 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account How You Will Benefit CCSA’s rank higher than other security vendor professionals Validation you have the skills to implement the latest network security advancements Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access Security Engineering (Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE) R77.30) Advanced 3-day course teaches how to build, modify, deploy and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems on the GAiA operating system. Hands-on lab exercises teach how to debug firewall processes, optimize VPN performance and upgrade Management Servers. See course description TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC DOWNLOAD STUDY GUIDE Course Description Learn How To Backup your Security Gateway and Management Server Build, test and troubleshoot a clustered Security Gateway Upgrade and troubleshoot a Management Server Configure and maintain security acceletration solutions Manage, test and optimize corporate VPN tunnels Prerequisites Security Administration Course or CCSA certification (R70 or later) Windows Server, UNIX and networking skills and TCP/IP experience Certificate management and system adminstration How You Will Benefit Build, test and troublehoot numerous deployment scenarios Apply insider tips troubleshooting Check Point Security Systems Practice advanced upgrading techniques Migrate to a clustering security solution Create events for compliance reporting Manage internal and external access to corporate resources Exam Information EXAM #156-315.77 What You Need To Know Check Point Technology Overview Deployment Platforms and Security Policies Monitoring Traffic and Connections Network Address Translations User Management and Authentication Using SmartUpdate Implementing Identity Awareness Configuring VPN tunnels Resolving security administration issues Prerequisites CCSA Certification – R70 or later Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account Get Ready Download the study guide Search for training from your local ATC Schedule your exam at VUE test centers Update Exam UPDATE EXAM #156-915.77 What You Need To Know If you have any CCSE certification, you can save time and maintain your certification with the CCSE Update exam! The CCSE Update only tests your knowledge on the latest product release. To prepare you should train or study the full CCSE course. Prerequisites CCSE Certification – any previous version Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account MDSM with VSX (Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension) 5-day advanced course teaches how to design, install, configure and manage Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension. TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC Course Description Learn How To Install, configure and troubleshoot Multi-Domain Security Managment Configure and implement a Global Policy Transition and consolidate physcial firewalls to a virtualized environment Prerequisites CCSE or equivalent experience Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account How You Will Benefit Consolidate multiple firewalls onto a single management platform Convert a security management server to a domain management server Use advanced migration tools to quickly migrate existing configurations Apply common troubleshooting best practices Implement MDS High-Availaibility Exam Information Exam #156-820.77 What You Need To Know Install, configure and manage the MDM environment Discribe common deployment scenarios Describe the traffic inspection process Configure DMS High Availability Configure and implement a Global Policy Apply common troubleshooting practices Prerequisites CCSE R75 or later 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products Check Point User Center account How You Will Benefit Check Point Certified Professionals rank higher than other security vendor professionals Validation you have the skills to manage enterprise security deployments Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM) R77.30 Our most advanced technical 3-day course teaches how to use advanced commands to configure and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems. Multiple hands-on lab exercises teach how to bring optimization techniques back to your workplace. Read Customer Testimonials sharing how Check Point Certification propelled the careers of these security experts. TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC Course Description Learn How To Identify issues and problems using commands Locate the source of encryption failures Identify potentially mis-configured VPNs Reduce IPS false positives Troubleshoot SecureXL and ClusterXL Prerequisites CCSE or equivalent knowledge Windows Server, UNIX and networking skills and TCP/IP experience Working knowledge of network and internet technology How You Will Benefit Bypass wait times and fast track to a support engineer Compare your policy to rules that degrade performance Tune your systems to improve acceleration of traffic Improve load capacity through optimization Improve logging efficiency Examine how rules and objects affect optimization Optimize network performance Exam Information EXAM #156-115.77 What You Need To Know How policy changes impact chain module behavior Identify the source of UGI client connectivity problems Troubleshoot Secure Internal Communication issues Configure VPN Tunnel Interface Deploy IPv6 in a local environment Use commands to clear the connections table Configure Open Shortest Path First Troubleshoot NAT stages Identify connections in ClusterXL debug file Prerequisites CCSE Certification – R70 or later Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account CheckPoint 156-815-71 156-815-71 exam :: Article by ArticleForgeSelfexamprep 156-815.71 examination - verify element licensed Managed protection expert R71 issuu enterprise emblem explore Arts & enjoyment trend & style domestic & garden enterprise travel training activities health & health activities meals & Drink technology Science automobiles Society faith & Spirituality Pets household & Parenting Feminism Go discover writer Plans Cancel register check in check in About issuu Plans & Pricing developers advertise with us Careers crew listing prison help & assist New series: determine aspect protection CCMSE Introducing a brand new practicing series from CBT Nuggets, “investigate element protection R75 CCMSE 156-815.seventy one.” obtain the coveted investigate point certified Managed protection expert (CCMSE) certification and turn into probably the most elite safety experts groups want to appoint. coach Bobby Meador walks you throughout the deployment and day by day guide of a multi-area solution to supply safety capabilities to a huge business – or as a managed services security provider. 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